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Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society

PLENARY PAPERdoi:10.5270/OceanObs09.pp.27

In Situ Sustained Eulerian Observatories

Richard Lampitt(1), Paolo Favali(2), C.R. Barnes(3), M.J. Church(4), M. F. Cronin(5), K.L. Hill(6), Y. Kaneda(7), D.M. Karl(4), A.H. Knap(8), M.J. McPhaden(5), K.A. Nittis(9), I.G. Priede(10), J-F. Rolin(11), U. Send(12), C-C Teng(13), T.W. Trull(14), D.W.R. Wallace(15), R.A. Weller(16)

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In order to gain a better understanding of the interactions of processes and properties of the earth system and how these are changing with time, it is essential that there is a sustained stream of high quality data on the marine environment. This must extend from its surface to the underlying seabed and use a matrix of interlinked platform types, each with specific advantages. Included in this matrix is the global array of fixed point or Eulerian observatories which have several unique capabilities. These include the ability to collect samples (water, biota and particles), to support sensors which have a high demand for space or power, to make observations in locations beyond the reach of satellites, gliders and floats and to observe and sample the seafloor. Considerable progress has been made in the operability of these observatories over the past decade and some, such as the Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array, make physical and meteorological observations that are well integrated. There has been considerable progress in sensor development, platform design, and in the principles and protocols required for data management. There is however a significant requirement now to interlink observations on biogeochemistry within the global Eulerian array and between Eulerian observatories and the other observing systems in the matrix. Large scale computational models closely coupled to the various observational approaches are required for much of this work and this challenge is being addressed by a number of groups. For this to be achieved there must be a change in mind-set of many of the funding organisations so that the financial resources are sustained. This is essential in order to prevent breakage of data streams and loss of the skill base of staff at the end of every funding round. There are examples of this change in approach in the USA (OOI (Observatories Initiative)) and in Canada (NEPTUNE (North East Pacific Time-series Undersea Networked Experiments)) but elsewhere in the world, short term funding is usually the normal mechanism which is expected to address long term environmental questions of major societal relevance.

1National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH UK
2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy
3NEPTUNE Canada, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
4Department of Oceanography,1000 Pope Rd. MSB 629, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
5NOAA PMEL, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 USA
6Integrated Marine Observing System, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 110, Hobart 7000, Australia
7Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology(JAMSTEC), DONET, 2-15 Natsuhima-cho, Yokosuka, 237-0061, Japan
8Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Inc., 17 Biological Lane, Ferry Reach, GE01, Bermuda
9Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, 46.7 km Athens-Sounio Ave., PO Box 712, Anavyssos, Attica, GR-19013, Greece
10University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, AB41 6AA, UK
11IFREMER, Centre de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané, France
12Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Mail Code 0230, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0230, USA
13NOAA National Data Buoy Center, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, U.S.A.
14Antarctic CRC, Univ. of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-80, Hobart, 7001, Australia
15Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften (IFM-GEOMAR,) Marine Biogeochemie- Chemische Ozeanographie -Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany
16Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Rd., MS# 29, Woods Hole, Ma. 02543, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to E-mail: r.lampitt@noc.ac.uk

This paper shall be cited as:

Lampitt, R. & Co-Authors (2010). "In Situ Sustained Eulerian Observatories" in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 1), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.pp.27

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