Integration of Ocean Observations into an Ecosystem Approach to Resource Management
J. Anthony Koslow(1), Keith Brander(2), Michael Fogarty(3), Frank Schwing(4)
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Ocean observation programs are integral to the development of integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs), which provide the scientific basis for ecosystem-based management (EBM). Ocean observation programs provide the basis for assessing the state of marine ecosystems and understanding the impacts of natural and anthropogenic forcing. They also underlie the development and testing of ocean models, which provide understanding of marine ecosystem processes and enable prediction of future ecosystem states. Observation programs also serve to monitor the impacts of marine management strategies. We discuss the development of EBM in the USA and Europe and examine the role of ocean observation programs. In particular, we note the need for integrated ocean observation programs that monitor the physical, chemical, and biological state of the oceans, including the zooplankton and mid- to higher trophic levels of large marine ecosystems. The further development of such integrated programs will require cooperation across government, academic and other institutions.
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This paper shall be cited as:
Koslow, J., Brander, K., Fogarty, M. and Schwing, F., (2010). "Integration of Ocean Observations into an Ecosystem Approach to Resource Management" in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 1), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.pp.26
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