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Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society

COMMUNITY WHITE PAPER10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.73

A Global Continuous Plankton Recorder Programme

Philip C. Reid(1), Ulrih Bathman(2), Sonia D. Batten(3), Russell E. Brainard(4), Peter H. Burkill(5), Francois Carlotti(6), Sanae Chiba(7), Alessandra Conversi(8), Robert R. Dickson(9), Harry Dooley(10), Martin Edwards(11), Juha Flinkman(12), Mitsuo Fukuchi(13), Joaquin Goes(14), Gustavo Goni(15), Charles H. Greene(16), Jonathan A. Hare(17), Graeme C Hays(18), Erica Head(19), Raleigh R. Hood(20), Graham Hosie(21), Brian P.V. Hunt(22), Anthony W.G. John(23), Tanya D. Jonas(23), Jack W. Jossie(17), Bengt Karlson(24), Kuh Kim(25), Richard R. Kirby(26), John Kitchener(27), Donald Kobayashi(28), Sami Lakkis(29), Marcos Llope(30), Rubens M. Lopes(31), Alison MacDiarmid(32), Abigail McQuatters-Gollop(23), Tom Malone(33), P. Matondkar(34), Erik Muxagata(35), Andrew Pershing(36), Anthony J. Richardson(37), Don Robertson(38), Karen Robinson(39), Aida Sartimbul(40), Nils C. Stenseth(41), Hiroya Sugisaki(42), Darren Stevens(23), Edward Vanden Berghe(43), Hans Verheye(44), Luigi Vezzulli(45), Peter Ward(46)

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Plankton are the main food source in the majority of marine ecosystems and have a crucial role in climate change through primary production and the export of carbon to the deep ocean. Understanding how ocean biology and biogeochemical cycles contribute and respond to climate and other global change is a major challenge of high significance for the future of mankind. Given their importance it is a major concern that, with the exception of data collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey, our knowledge of plankton at ocean scales and over time is still rudimentary. Using ships of opportunity, the CPR survey has sampled the plankton for more than 75 years in the North Atlantic, aided more recently by sister surveys in Southern Ocean, North Pacific and Australasian waters. Monitoring plankton variability over large areas of oceanic and coastal water with the CPR is efficient and cost effective and is a powerful, proven tool for detecting and predicting oceanic impacts of both global and climate change. There is an urgent need to improve global coverage of plankton and provide data for modelling. To address this need we propose the development and implementation of an integrated and appropriately funded global CPR programme linked to SOOP/VOS (Ship of Opportunity Program/Volunteer Observing Ship. Our vision is to build regional surveys with common standards for sampling, analysis, data processing and sample storage that generate compatible and freely exchangeable data. It is envisaged that the resulting global network, of preferably instrumented CPR routes, would be closely associated with other traditional and new plankton sampling and analysing technologies, plus remote sensing and the Global Tracking Network (GTN). To develop this network it is proposed that SAHFOS (Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science) should have a central role as a "Centre of Excellence" for coordination, training and quality control, as well as the production of indicators, habitat niche modelling and other global outreach products.

1Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS), The Laboratory; Marine Institute, University of Plymouth; Marine Biological Association, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK; Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK; Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK.
2Polar Biological Oceanography, Alfred-Wegener-Institute Polar and Marine Research, D-27515 Bremerhaven, Germany
3Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, 4737 Vista View Crescent, Nanaimo, British Colombia V9V 1N8, Canada
4NOAA - Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center/Coral Reef Ecosystem Division, 1125B Ala Moana Boulvard, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96814, USA
5Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS), The Laborator); Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK.; Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK.
6Laboratoire d'Océanographie Physique et Biogéochimique - Unité Mixte de Recherche 6535 - C.N.R.S., Station Marine d'Endoume, Université de la Méditerranée - Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers (OSU) - Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille (COM), Rue de la Batterie des Lions, F- 13007 Marseille, France
7EBCRP/JAMSTEC, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0001, Japan
8CNR - ISMAR; Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, La Spezia, Forte Santa Teresa, Pozzuolo, 19032 Lerici (SP), Italy; Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK.
9Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), The Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft,Suffolk NR33 OHT, UK
10Castanea, Andrews Park, The Woll, Ashkirk, Selkirk TD7 4NY, Scotland, UK
11Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory; Marine Institute, University of Plymouth,, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK.; Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK.
12Marine Research Center, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, FI - 00251, Helsinki, Finland
13National Institute of Polar Research 9-10, Kaga 1-chome, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8515, Japan
14Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 475, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04575-0475 USA
15NOAA/AOML/PHOD, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, USA
16Ocean Resources and Ecosystems Program, Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University,, 2130 Snee Hall, Ithaca, New York, 14853 USA.
17NOAA NMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Centre, Narragansett Laboratory, 28 Tarzwell Road, Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882, USA
18Institute of Environmental Sustainability, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.
19Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ecosystem Research Division, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2, Canada
20Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland Centre for Environmental Science, P.O. Box 775, Cambridge, Maryland, 21613, USA
21Australian Antarctic Division, 203 Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania, 7050, Australia.
22Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, The University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
23Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK.
24Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Research & Development, Oceanography, Sven Källfelts gata, 15, SE-426 71 Västra Frölunda, Sweden
25Environmental Science and Engineering Department, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang , Kyungsang-bukdo, 790-784, Republic of Korea
26Royal Society University Fellow, University of Plymouth, Marine Biological Association and Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK; Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK; Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK.
27Australian Antarctic Division , 203 Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania, 7050, Australia.
28Ecosystems & Oceanography Division, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, NOAA/NMFS, 2570 Dole Street, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822, USA
29Section of Oceanography, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
30Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Centro Oceanográfico de Cádiz; Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biology, University of Oslo , Muelle de Levante (Puerto Pesquero), Apdo. 2609, 11006 Cádiz, Spain; P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
31Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Pr. Oceanografico 191, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-120, Brazil
32NIWA (National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research), 301 Evans Bay Parade, Private Bag 14-901, Wellington 6021, New Zealand.
33Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, P.O. Box 775, Cambridge, Maryland, 21613, USA
34National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona Paula - 403 004, Goa, India
35Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratório de Zooplâncton - Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália Km, 8- Campus Carreiros - Caixa Postal 474, 96201-900 - Rio Grande- RS, Brazil
36University of Maine School of Marine Sciences - Gulf of Maine Research Institute, 350 Commercial Street, Portland, Maine 04101, USA
37Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Marine and Atmospheric Research; School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, P O. Box 120, Cleveland, Queensland 4163, Australia; St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
38National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), 301 Evans Bay Parade, Private Bag 14-901, Wellington 6021, New Zealand.
39National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), 10 Kyle Street, Riccarton, PO Box 8602, Christchurch, New Zealand
40Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, University of Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
41Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norwaya
42Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, 3-27-5 Shinhama-cho, Shiogama, Miyagi, 985-0001, Japan
43Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), Institude of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 71 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8521 USA
44Biological Oceanography, Marine & Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, Foretrust Building, 2nd Floor - Room A2-58, Martin Hammerschlag Way, Foreshore, Cape Town, South Africa
45Department of Biology, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV, 5 16132 Genoa, Italy
46British Antarctic Survey,, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK.

Correspondence should be addressed to E-mail: sahfos@sahfos.ac.uk

This paper shall be cited as:

Reid, P. & Co-Authors (2010). "A Global Continuous Plankton Recorder Programme" in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.73

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