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Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society

COMMUNITY WHITE PAPER10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.34

Progressing Towards Global Sustained Deep Ocean Observations

Silvia L. Garzoli(1), Olaf Boebel(2), Harry Bryden(3), Rana A. Fine (4), Masao Fukasawa(5), Sergey Gladyshev(6), Greg Johnson(7), Mike Johnson(8), Alexander MacDonald(9), Christopher Meinen(1), Herle Mercier(10), Alejandro Orsi(11), Alberto Piola(12), Steve Rintoul (13), Sabrina Speich(14), Martin Visbeck(15), Rik Wanninkhof (1)

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The deep ocean plays a crucial role in aspects of the climate system on longer time-scales including the global heat budget, sea level rise, potential variations in the meridional overturning circulation, and long-term storage of climatically relevant compounds such as CO2. Expanding the ocean observing system towards being truly global will include adequately measuring the half of the ocean volume below 2000 m depth. This will require an increased commitment to the design and implementation of technologies for collecting deep ocean data and transmitting these data to shore in a cost effective manner. This paper focuses on four of the fundamental areas where improvements to the observing system in the deep ocean are critical to the advancement of our understanding of climate science. These include deep circulation with an emphasis on "strong flows", ocean heat content, fresh water/salinity content, and CO2 content. It is clear that to continue working towards understanding of climate variations and their impact on society, it is imperative to maintain existing observing systems while improving and expanding the deep ocean components of the Global Ocean Observing System. Recommendations are provided for expanding the observing systems for deep circulation, for deep temperature and salinity variations (hence heat and fresh water estimates), and for deep observations of CO2 and other chemical tracers. Recommendations are also provided in areas where technological advances are required to improve the ability to collect this data remotely using either free-floating or fixed observing platforms.

1NOAA/AOML (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory), 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, USA
2AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute), Columbusstraße 27568 Bremerhaven, Deutschland
3NOCS (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton), Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom
4RSMAS (Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science), University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 USA
5JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), University of Tokyo, 1-15-1, Minami-dai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo, 164-8639, Japan
6Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 36, Nahimovski Prospect, Moscow, Russia, 117997
7NOAA/PMEL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory), 7600 Sand Point Way N.E. Seattle, WA 98115-6349, USA
8NOAA/OCO (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Office of Climate Observation), 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 1202, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
9(NOAA/ESRL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory), 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305-3328,USA
10IFREMER (French Institute for Exploitation of the Sea/Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer), Technopole de Brest-Iroise, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané, France
11TAMU (Texas A&M University), Collage Station. Texas, 77843, USA
12SHN/UBA (Servicio de Hidrografía Naval ), Avenida Montes de Oca 2124, C1270ABV Capital Federal, Argentina
13CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), Locked Bag 10, Clayton South VIC 3169, Australia
14Université de Brest, 29238 Brest Cedex 3, CS 93837, France
15Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften/Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR (Research Center for Marine Geosciences), Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to E-mail: Silvia.Garzoli@noaa.gov

This paper shall be cited as:

Garzoli, S. & Co-Authors (2010). "Progressing Towards Global Sustained Deep Ocean Observations" in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.34

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