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Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society

COMMUNITY WHITE PAPER10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.13

Sensors and Systems for In Situ Observations of Marine Carbon Dioxide System Variables

Robert H. Byrne(1), Michael D. DeGrandpre(2), R. Timothy Short(3), Todd R. Martz(4), Liliane Merlivat(5), Craig McNeil(6), Fred L. Sayles(7), Ryan Bell(3), Peer Fietzek(8)

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Autonomous chemical sensors are required to document the marine carbon dioxide system's evolving response to anthropogenic CO2 inputs, as well as impacts on short- and long-term carbon cycling. Observations will be required over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and measurements will likely need to be maintained for decades. Measurable CO2 system variables currently include total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (AT), CO2 fugacity (fCO2), and pH, with comprehensive characterization requiring measurement of at least two variables. These four parameters are amenable to in situ analysis, but sustained deployment remains a challenge. Available methods encompass a broad range of analytical techniques, including potentiometry, spectrophotometry, conductimetry, and mass spectrometry. Instrument capabilities (precision, accuracy, endurance, reliability, etc.) are diverse and will evolve substantially over the time that the marine CO2 system undergoes dramatic changes. Different suites of measurements/parameters will be appropriate for different sampling platforms and measurement objectives.

1College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 7th Ave S, St. Petersburg, Florida. 33701 USA
2Department of Chemistry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812-1296 USA
3SRI International (Stanford Research Institute) - St. Petersburg, 450 8th Avenue Southeast, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 USA
4Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0225, USA
5Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu 75005 Paris, France
6Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 N.E. 40th St., Seattle, WA 98105, USA
7Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Rd., Clark, MS 25, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA
8Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, University of Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to E-mail: byrne@marine.usf.edu

This paper shall be cited as:

Byrne, R. & Co-Authors (2010). "Sensors and Systems for In Situ Observations of Marine Carbon Dioxide System Variables" in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.13

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