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Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society

COMMUNITY WHITE PAPER10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.07

A Global Sea Surface Carbon Observing System: Inorganic and Organic Carbon Dynamics in Coastal Oceans

A.V. Borges(1), S.R. Alin(2), F.P. Chavez(3), P. Vlahos(4), K.S. Johnson(3), J.T. Holt(5), W.M. Balch(6), N. Bates(7), R. Brainard(8), W.-J. Cai(9), C.T.A. Chen(10), K. Currie(11), M. Dai(12), M. Degrandpre(13), B. Delille(1), A. Dickson(14), W. Evans(15), R.A. Feely(16), G.E. Friederich(3), G.-C. Gong(17), B. Hales(18), N. Hardman-Mountford(19), J. Hendee(20), J.M. Hernandez-Ayon(21), M. Hood(22), E. Huertas(23), D. Hydes(24), D. Ianson(25), E. Krasakopoulou(26), E. Litt(19), A. Luchetta(27), J. Mathis(28), W.R. McGillis(29), A. Murata(30), J. Newton(31), J. Ólafsson(32), A. Omar(33), F.F. Perez(34), C. Sabine(2), J.E. Salisbury(35), R. Salm(36), V.V.S.S. Sarma(37), B. Schneider(38), M. Sigler(39), H. Thomas(40), D. Turk(41), D. Vandemark(35), R. Wanninkhof(20), B. Ward(42)

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Coastal environments are an important component of the global carbon cycle, and probably more vulnerable than the open ocean to anthropogenic forcings. Due to strong spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, carbon flows in coastal environments are poorly constrained. Hence, an integrated, international, and interdisciplinary program of ship-based hydrography, Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) lines, time-series moorings, floats, gliders, and autonomous surface vessels with sensors for pCO2 and ancillary variables are recommended to better understand present day carbon cycle dynamics, quantify air-sea CO2 fluxes, and determine future long-term trends of CO2 in response to global change forcings (changes in river inputs, in the hydrological cycle, in circulation, sea-ice retreat, expanding oxygen minimum zones, ocean acidification, ?) in the coastal oceans. Integration at the international level is also required for data archiving, management, and synthesis that will require multi-scale approaches including the development of biogeochemical models and use of remotely sensed parameters. The total cost of these observational efforts is estimated at about 50 million US dollars per year.

1ULg (University of Liege), Allée du 6 Août, 17 (Bât B5) B-4000 Liège - Belgium
2NOAA/PMEL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory), 7600 Sand Point Way N.E. Seattle, WA 98115-6349, USA
3MBARI (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute), 7700 Sandholdt Road · Moss Landing, CA 95039-USA
4UConn (University of Connecticut), 115 N Eagleville Rd, Storrs, CT 06268 USA
5POL (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory), 6 Brownlow St, Liverpool, Merseyside L3 5DA, United Kingdom
6Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 180 McKown Point Road, P.O. Box 475, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04575-0475 USA
7BIOS (Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences), 17 Biological Station, Ferry Reach, St. George's GE 01, Bermuda
8NOAA/PIFSC (Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), 1125-B Ala Moana Blvd., Honolulu, HI 96814, USA
9UGA (University of Georgia), Athens, GA 30602 USA
10NSYSU (National Sun Yat-Sen University), 7, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
11NIWA (National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research), 41 Market Place, Viaduct Harbour, Auckland Central 1010, Private Bag 99940, Newmarket, Auckland 1149. New Zealand
12XMU (Xiamen University), 361005 Fujian Province, P. R. China
13UMONTANA (University of Montana), 32 Campus Drive #1296 - Missoula, MT 59812-1296, USA
14UCSD (University of California, San Diego), 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0225, USA
15OSU (Ohio State University), Enarson Hall 154 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 USA
16National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory (NOAA/PMEL), 7600 Sand Point Way N.E. Seattle, WA 98115-6349, USA
17National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU), 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung ,Taiwan 20224, R.O.C.
18Ohio State University (OSU), Enarson Hall 154 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 USA
19PML (Plymouth Marine Laboratory), Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK,
20NOAA/AOML (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory), 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, USA
21UABC (Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Ensenada, Baja California, Apartado postal 2732, México
22UNESCO-IOCCP (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization/International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project), 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
23ICMAN (Instituto De Ciencias Marinas De Andulacia (ICMAN), Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro, s/n. Puerto Real. Cadiz. E-11519 (ESPAÑA)
24SOTON (University of Southampton), Waterfront Campus, European Way SO14 5FD Southampton UK
25IOS (Institute of Ocean Sciences), 9860 West Saanich Road, PO Box 6000, Sidney V8L 4B2, B.C., Canada
26HCMR (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research), PO Box 2214, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, (Greece)
27ISMAR (Istituto di Scienze Marine/Institute of Marine Sciences), Viale Romolo Gessi 2 - 34123 Trieste - Italia
28UAF (University of Alaska Fairbanks), 907 Yukon Dr, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA
29LDEO (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory), 61 Route 9W, PO Box 1000; Palisades, New York 10964 USA
30JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, 237-0061, Japan.
31UW (University of Washington), 1013 N.E. 40th St., Seattle, WA 98105, USA
32HAFRO (Hafrannsóknastofnunin/ Marine Research Institute), Skulagata 4, 121 Reykjavik, Iceland
33UIB (University of Bergen), Allegaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway
34IIM (Instituto de Investigaciones Marina), C/Eduardo Cabello, 6. Vigo. Pontevedra. E-36208 (ESPAÑA).
35UNH (University of New Hampshire), 39 College Rd., Durham, NH 03824, USA
36TNC (The Nature Conservancy), 4245 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 100, Arlington, VA 22203-1606, USA
37NIO (National Institute of Oceanography), Dona Paula - 403 004, Goa, India
38IO-WARNEMUENDE (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde), Seestrasse 15, D-18119 Rostock
39NOAA AFSC (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Alaska Fisherines Science Center), 7600 Sand Point Way N.E., Building 4, Seattle, Washington 98115
40DAL (Dalhousie University), 1355 Oxford St., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1 Canada
41NIB (Nacionalni in?titut za biologijo/National Institute of Biology), Ve?na pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, SI
42NUI (National University of Ireland), 49 Merrion Square, Dublin 2, IR

Correspondence should be addressed to E-mail: alberto.borges@ulg.ac.be

This paper shall be cited as:

Borges, A. & Co-Authors (2010). "A Global Sea Surface Carbon Observing System: Inorganic and Organic Carbon Dynamics in Coastal Oceans" in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.07

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