OceanObs'09 - Additional Contributions

 
Session: In situ (04A)


Quality assessment of in-situ and altimeter measurements through SSH comparisons
Ablain, M1; Valladeau, G1; Lombard, A2; Bronner, E2; Femenias, P3
1CLS, FRANCE;
2CNES, FRANCE;
3ESA-ESRIN, ITALY

Altimetry missions provide accurate measurements of sea surface height (SSH) from 1992 onwards with TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), and until now thanks to Jason-1, Envisat and more recently Jason-2. A global assessment of these data is systematically performed in order to detect potential anomalies and estimate system performances. In addition, cross-calibration between each altimeter mission is carried out to thoroughly analyze SSH bias, and potential drifts or jumps in the global Mean Sea Level (MSL), see MSL AVISO website (1). In order to complete this assessment, in-situ measurements are also used as independent sources of comparison. In this way, tide gauge networks have been compared to altimeter data (2). In this study, we present the main results obtained from these comparisons (for T/P, Jason-1 and Envisat) through the 3 following objectives linked together. The first one consists in detecting drifts or jumps in altimeter SSH by comparison with in-situ measurements. The second goal is the analysis of the SSH consistency improvement between altimeter and in-situ data using new altimeter standards (orbit, geophysical corrections, ground processing...). The last objective is the detection of anomalies on in-situ time series thanks to the cross-comparison with all available altimeter data. In-situ measurements can thus be corrected or even removed in order to further improve the SSH comparison with altimeters. References : (1) MSL Aviso website: www.aviso.oceanobs.com/msl/ (2)Ablain et al., 2009: A new assessment of global mean sea level from altimeters highlights a reduction of global trend from 2005 to 2008 (in press)

 
An application to integrate bathymetric and other dataset to study gas hydrates reservoir.
Accettella, Daniela; Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Accaino, Flavio; Loreto, Maria Filomena
Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS, ITALY

We show an application of geographical information system for integrating bathymetric and other dataset to study gas hydrates reservoir along the South Shetland Margin (Antarctic Peninsula). The main goal of this project was to map the regional distribution of gas hydrates reservoir. In this area, an integrated approach has pointed out the presence of gas hydrates reservoir. The available geophysical information are the following: Multibeam data, seismic images, 2D and 3D velocity and porosity models, 2D and 3D gas phase concentrations, pore pressure information, chirp images, gravity core analysis and CTD data. The first step consisted in collecting and homogenizing the data, which has been organized in a specific database, in order to connect all scientific information acquired in the area. This integrated approach has allowed us to obtained regional information, such as geothermal gradient, by correlating all available data and obtaining 3D information distribution.

 
Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS)
Bahamon, N.1; Cruzado, A.1; Bernardello, R.1; Ahumada, M.A.2; Donis, D.1; Cardoso, G.1
1Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes (CSIC), SPAIN;
2Universidad del Mar, MEXICO

1. Presentation.

The Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS) is maintained by the Group on Operational Marine Sciences and Sustainability (CMOS) taking advantage of the facilities available at the CEAB with regard to the capacity for observing the marine and coastal environment in the Catalan Sea and beyond, assessing and modelling the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes of the region. The observatory started in January 2009 as a Spanish National Project (OAMMS) and is expected to be fully operational in 2011. Much of the work that should integrate the observatory is already done in the framework of research projects (ENVIST CAL/VAL). A Quality Control Program will be developed and implemented.

2. Components.

Multiparametric oceanographic buoy. The buoy system is being tested at CEABs facilities. Pre-deployment on a shallow nearshore mooring site is planned to take place in April 2009 and final deployment is expected for September 2009. Data are collected continuously and averaged over 30 minute periods before they are transmitted to the base in the CEAB. The buoy system was operated in a pilot study for three months back in 2005 with relatively satisfactory results. Much of the instrumentation is available and a factory calibration is in progress.

Complementary sampling and infrastructure maintenance. Fortnightly CTD/Niskin casts started in March 2009 on board the CEABs vessel DOLORES. The vessel will be equipped with an autonomous rosette water sampler control and data acquisition. Six-monthly visits from the R/V GARCIA DEL CID will be performed at the mooring site and at a grid covering parts of the Catalan Sea. On-deck inspection and maintenance of the instrumentation will be carried out.

Real-time modelling and forecast. Two models available and implemented by Group members, 1DV Model and 3D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model for NW Mediterranean Sea, will be adjusted to assimilate data obtained from the observing system as well as from remote sensing to produce real time operational forecast.

Historical data. Oceanographic cruises performed by the team in last decades in the study area providing historical information of hydrographical and biogeochemical conditions in the area will be accessible on-line.

3. Outreach and potential contribution to the global system.

The observatory, through its web page, will disseminate results and data sets and will also advertise the willingness of the scientists in the CEAB to lecture in colleges, high schools and other communities which might be interested in knowing first hand the experiences of the day-to-day work.

Once the system will be consolidated it is expected to become an observatory providing services for local and regional meteo-marine climate change projections. The OOCS is currently a part of the consortium MOON: Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network. The success in contributing to the global system will much depend on setting a solid system providing high-quality data and predictions and on funds available after 2011.

 
In Situ Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Measurements in the Water Column and on the Sea Floor
Bell, RJ1; Toler, SK1; Short, RT1; Byrne, RH2
1SRI International, UNITED STATES;
2University of South Florida, UNITED STATES

Among the techniques used in modern elemental and molecular analysis, none surpasses mass spectrometry (MS) in analytical access to elements, isotopes (stable and radioactive), and complex molecules (including natural and anthropogenic organics). Interest in the development of MS as an in situ analytical technique is a consequence of the demonstrated versatility, sensitivity, and reliability of MS characterizations. As an in situ technique, MS provides a means of simultaneously monitoring many types of chemicals with high temporal and spatial resolution.

SRI International and the University of South Florida have developed underwater membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) systems capable of in situ detection and quantification of dissolved gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The instruments are based on a 200 amu (atomic mass unit) linear quadrupole mass analyzer with a closed ion source (Transpector CPM-200 Residual Gas Analyzer, Inficon, Inc., Syracuse, New York). Introduction of analytes into the mass spectrometer occurs through a high-pressure polydimethlyl siloxane membrane introduction system that has been tested at pressures equivalent to oceanic depths of ˇÜ 2000 meters. The membrane interface used in these systems provides parts-per-billion level detection of many VOCs and sub parts-per-million detection limits for many dissolved light stable gases.

The underwater MIMS systems have been deployed on a wide variety of platforms for a number of applications in coastal oceanographic, estuarine, and freshwater research. Types of deployments include shallow-water monitoring for pollutants (VOCs) in tethered/moored scenarios, as well as onboard autonomous and remotely controlled unmanned vehicles. By recording the position of the vehicle/MS system using global positioning system or ultra-short baseline navigation technology, and time matching to concurrent MS data, we have demonstrated that chemical maps can be created to show spatial chemical concentration variations with unprecedented resolution. The underwater MIMS systems have also been used in vertical profile studies of dissolved gases to approximately 900 m depths. Methods to calibrate for effects of hydrostatic pressure at depth have been devised to provide in situ dissolved gas concentrations.

More recently, a sediment probe and syringe pump system has been developed to provide additional in situ analytical capability. The syringe pump system provides a very constant sample flow rate over a wide range of sampling speeds, and allows the introduction of reagents to convert non-volatile analytes to volatile species that can be detected by the underwater MIMS system. For example, dissolved inorganic carbon can be converted to gaseous carbon dioxide in order to quantify total carbon in aqueous environments. The sediment probe can be programmed to sample pore water at various depths in the sediment to measure vertical gradients of dissolved gases. Future goals include development of an in situ mass spectrometer capable of long-duration deployment, further miniaturization of MS systems, and development of new sampling interfaces. Several innovations and improvements relative to current underwater MS technology are required to meet these goals. Providing the capability to make stable measurements over periods of weeks to many months (with in situ recalibration or minimal drift from calibration) will immensely expand the utility of in situ mass spectrometry technology for ocean observing applications.

 
Deep ocean observing system over middle and long time scale: the E2M3A site in the Southern Adriatic
Cardin, V.R.; Bensi, M.; Gačić , M.
Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS, ITALY

The open-ocean convection has been considered the engine of the global conveyor belt. It is a mechanism forming new dense and oxygenated waters, and it riggers the solubility and the biological pump. Among the few zones in the world interested by the open-ocean convection, the South Adriatic is a small but key area for the intermediate and deep thermohaline cell of the Eastern Mediterranean. There, the Adriatic Dense Water ADW formed prevailing by the open-ocean vertical convection , becomes the main component of the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW). This process takes place in the South Adriatic Pit (SAP) in the centre of the cyclonic gyre. The extension of the vertical mixing, varies on the interannual and decadal time-scales in function of the air-sea heat fluxes and the pre-conditioning vertical density structure.

The high spatio-temporal variability of the deep convection and its interaction with other processes makes difficult it study. Oceanographic cruises provide a good spatial coverage but lack in temporal resolution. The need of high temporal sampling to resolve events and rapid processes and the long sustained measurement of multiple interrelated variables from sea surface to seafloor can be solve by the use of moorings located in specific areas as the Southern Adriatic Pit.

In the framework of the Italian VECTOR project a deep-sea mooring (41°29.7'N, 17°42.1'E) containing CT sensors at five depths, an upward looking 150 kHz ADCP and an Aanderaa current meter RCM11 was located in the vertical convection area. Moreover, two sediment traps were positioned at 168 m and 1174 m on the mooring line. This mooring configuration permits to individuate water mass formation, measuring simultaneously physical and chemical parameters. The mooring is still in the water and new upgrades will be done in the framework of the European project EuroSITES during 2009. The deployment of pCO2 sensor together with a pH sensor within the mixed layer will allow to estimate the Carbon system at the site. The deployment of a surface buoy will allow the real data transfer from the platform to the land station.

Here, data recorded in the period between end-November 2006 and October 2008 covering two consecutive year with pre-conditioning and deep convection periods will be presented . Surface chlorophyll a obtained from the SeaWiFS data is a good indicator of the vertical mixing patch as demonstrated earlier, and here it has been used in determining the patch position with respect to the mooring location and its geometry.

 
An operational In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS)
Cowen, Robert K.1; Guigand, Cedric1; Cousin, Charles2; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil3; Chatzis, Sotirios3; Greer, Adam1
1University of Miami/RSMAS, UNITED STATES;
2Bellamare LLC., UNITED STATES;
3University of Miami/CCS, UNITED STATES

One driving factor improving the resolution of oceanographic sampling has been the observation of fine structure in the ocean. As oceanographers improve their sample resolution, the finer patterns that are discovered lead to a better understanding (and new questions) about dynamic processes in the ocean. To date, current technologies available for the study of many zooplankters remain limited in comparison to the spatial-temporal resolution and data acquisition rate available for physical oceanographic measurements, especially for the relatively rare meso-zooplankton. To overcome these challenges, we have built a towed, very high resolution digital imaging system capable of sampling water volumes sufficient for accurate quantification of meso-zooplankton in situ. The images are high quality, enabling clear identification of meso-zooplankters (e.g. larvaceans, gelatinous zooplankters, chaetognaths, larval fish), often to family or genus level. However, the efforts directed toward high speed and high-resolution imaging have the potential to create a bottleneck in data analysis. To address this problem we also have developed efficient algorithms detect multiple regions (organisms) of interest (ROI) automatically, while filtering out noise and out-of-focus organisms, and simultaneously classify the detected organisms into pre-defined categories using shape and texture information. Here we demonstrate the current design, image quality, image analysis approach and example data analyses as an overview of the system capabilities.

 
Monitoring Sea Surface Salinity in the Global Ocean from Ships of Opportunity: The French SSS Observation Service
Delcroix, T.1; Alory, G.2; Diverres, D.3; Gouriou, Y.3; Jacquin, S.3; Maes, C.4; Morrow, R.2; Reverdin, G.5; Techine, P.6; Varillon, D.7
1IRD / LEGOS, FRANCE;
2CNAP / LEGOS, FRANCE;
3IRD, FRANCE;
4IRD / LEGOS, NEW CALEDONIA;
5CNRS / LOCEAN, FRANCE;
6CNRS / LEGOS, FRANCE;
7IRD, NEW CALEDONIA

Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) observations are needed to improve our understanding of the earth's water cycle and climate variability. SSS has proven to be valuable for describing and understanding climate variability at seasonal to decadal time scales, improving estimates of long-term trends in the context of climate change, testing physical processes, assessing numerical model performances, quantifying the relative role of salinity on sea level change, improving El Nino prediction lead time, etc.. The importance of SSS in the climate system has further motivated the development by European and USA/Argentina space agencies of dedicated satellite missions (SMOS and Aquarius) which will enhance global observations.

As an additional contribution to Community White Papers dealing with in situ and/or future satellite-derived SSS measurements, this poster aims at presenting the French SSS Observation Service (http://www.legos.obs-mip.fr/observations/sss/). This Observation Service is a nationally certified 'Observatory for Research in Environment' since 2002, and it represents the main contribution to the international Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD; http://www.gosud.org) program. It aims at collecting, validating, archiving and distributing in situ SSS measurements derived from thermosalinographs installed on Voluntary Observing Ships, for climate research and operational ocenanography. Details will be given about technical issues, instruments and softwares used, management of real time data transmission, validation processes for both real time and delayed mode data, with a special focus on derived products, climatic indices and recent scientific results.

 
Autonomous Platforms for Studies in the Coastal Zone
Desa, Elgar1; Madhan, R1; Navelkar, G1; Dabholkar, N1; Mascarenhas, A1; Prabhudesai, S1; Desa, Ehrlich2; Maurya, P1; Pascoal, A3; Rajan, K4; Nayak, S5; Fortes, M6; Kyewalyanga, M7
1National Institute of Oceanography, INDIA;
2IOC( Unesco), FRANCE;
3Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) /ISR, PORTUGAL;
4MBARI, UNITED STATES;
5Ministry of Earth Sciences, INDIA;
6Marine Science Institute ,CS University of Philippines, PHILIPPINES;
7Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF

Global climate-change programs have been driven by the need to understand the nature and variability of open ocean processes and the role they play in climate change. Blue water research has benefited from the emergence of low power sensors, advances in electronics and software techniques, high speed RF, and satellite communications all of which have spawned well proven technological tools ďż˝ Argo profiling floats, moored and drifting buoys, ship based profiling instrument packages, and of more recent vintage ; gliders, AUVS, and ASVS. However, use of this technology comes with a price as it is expensive and only a few developed countries can afford it with the resources at their disposal. The coastal zone is prone to a diverse array of natural hazards caused by storm surges, sea level rise from global warming, floods and anthropogenic effects of pollution from sewage and waste disposal, sand& gravel extraction, river run-off, and hypoxic zones cause by eutrophication. The scientific challenges here are in separating out man made effects from natural variability of coastal processes. There has been a growing interest from both developed and developing countries in monitoring and understanding the coastal environment. However, the technological tools of blue water research are designed for deep water operations ďż˝ for example , it would be difficult to use profiling floats or gliders in typical shallow depths of 50m to 100m. Ocean Colour satellites generate large scale images of the open ocean, but produce unreliable data in near shore areas and estuaries due to uncertainties in atmospheric corrections and geo-location coordinates. Thus, there is a lack of appropriate low cost technology tools that could be used to monitor and understand coastal processes.

In this poster, we present the development of an Autonomous Vertical Profiler (AVP) as an example of an automated platform that is being used to obtain high resolution vertical structure of shallow coastal zone waters. It belongs to the class of propelled robot vehicles that traverse the water column rapidly while sensing and storing the vertical structure of water column properties. The concept of a thruster driven profiler was first described in US Patent 6,786,087 (2005). The AVP can be programmed to descend at variable speeds to a given depth set by the user. It ramps down the motor thrust, reaching zero velocity at a desired depth layer above the sea bed. Being lightly buoyant for safety purposes, it ascends relatively slowly to the sea surface without power. In order to locate the profiler after it breaks surface, the AVP transmits its GPS (Global Positioning System) coordinates via RF or through a satellite modem. Low frequency acoustic pingers are additional safety devices that can strapped on the hull.

What are the principal advantages of the AVP ?

1. The motion of the AVP is decoupled from the ship/ boat from which it is launched so that external perturbations of the platform are nullified. A thin fishing line with near zero drag attached to the AVP hull is used as safety precaution in case of any problem.
2. The AVP accommodates sensors of Chlorophyll, backscattering, Dissolved Oxygen, and CTD in its nose cone. These sensors are sampled concurrently at a high rate.
3. Data profiles are transmitted via high speed RF link to the GUI of the shore/ship user after it resurfaces.
4. The AVP software uses an echo-sounder and pressure sensor mounted on its nose cone to ensure a vey low probability of crashing into the seabed.
5. Repetitive dives offer adequate statistics on the profile shape variability, if any, with error bars on each measured variable.
6. In a worst case scenario, the profiler can do 24 dives/day to a depth of 100m. More dives/day are possible at shallower coastal depths e.g 36 dives to 50m, 60 dives to 30m, 90 dives to 15m.
7. The control system on the AVP invests it with the capability of hovering at any set depth so that time series of a feature can be studied in detail. In addition, time series of vertical profiles every 5 mins for 8 hours has been possible.
8. The AVP can morph into an autonomous profiling drifter in the coastal and open ocean waters by reporting its coordinates periodically via an Iridium satellite modem.

Another example of an autonomous platform for coastal monitoring is the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) which provides spatial data of surface coastal waters. The incorporation of a simple heading controller and smart path following navigational algorithms makes it possible to execute lawn mower missions in coastal areas. The data from these platforms can be processed to generate 2D surface maps of chlorophyll and temperature which if combined with AVP profiles provides the means to understand coastal processes in more detail. Our aim here is to propose and recommend appropriate technology that would benefit the world wide community of marine scientists in developing countries who may need to build capacity in learning about their own near shore areas.

 
Optimization of a Membrane Based NDIR-sensor for Dissolved CO2
Fietzek, P.; Körtzinger, A.
IFM-GEOMAR, GERMANY

The autonomous measurement of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) is without doubt of great and still increasing scientific importance. As one of the parameters of the marine CO2 system its long-term measurement is crucial for the understanding and monitoring of many biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Due to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations with its impact on worlds climate and the resulting ocean acidification the measurement of aqueous CO2 extends its importance towards social and by the issue of sequestration even to economical aspects. There is thus a need for reliable, fast and easy-to-use instrumentation to measure the partial pressure of dissolved CO2 (pCO2) in situ. However, there are only few autonomous underwater sensors available.

The poster presents the measuring principle as well as the latest development state of a commercial sensor (HydroC™/CO2, CONTROS Systems & Solutions GmbH, Kiel), which is optimized in a collaboration of the IFM-GEOMAR together with the manufacturer. The sensor's design and size lend itself to autonomous long-term measurements on e.g. floats, which mark one of the development goals. A hydrophobic membrane acts as a gas permeable phase boundary between the water and the inner gas circuit of the sensor. The circulating air inside the instrument is continuously passing through a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR-detector), in which the CO2 concentration is determined on the principle absorption spectrometry.

Along with a description of the optimization methodology comprising membrane investigations and optimization of the optical unit as well as the internal overall design, the poster shows results of laboratory experiments carried out with the latest sensor model. It features a total of 6 additional sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity and pressure at different positions within the gas circuit and an extra temperature probe for sea water. These sensors are both, essential for proper pCO2 measurements and necessary to understand the processes happening in the instrument during the time of long deployment. An adjustable zero-point calibration allows for in situ performance tests of the sensor. Data of a first intercomparison exercise with participation of a predecessor model are presented as well.

 
Ubatuba Long-term of Plankton and Biooptical Time Series- UPBITS
Gaeta, S.A.; Pompeu, M.; Lopes, R.M; Sumida, P.Y.G.; Kampel, M.; Kotarski, E.; Oliveira, G.Q; Santos, J.C; Chuqui, M.; Santos, P.M; Rigolino, S.T.; Harlamov, V.; Araujo, W
University of Sao Paulo Oceanographic Institute, BRAZIL

Historically, people have depended on access to coastal waters for trade and transport and access to fresh water for their living requirements; this has resulted in the establishment of major population centers along the shores of estuaries and coastal seas. In the Brazil today, over two-thirds of the population lives within 50 km of the coasts. This population, with its necessary energy generating facilities, industries and waste-treatment plants has created a significant burden on coastal zones.

Ubatuba inner shelf is under the influence of a cyclonic meandering at a region of diverging bathymetry, which promotes a crosscurrent transfer of Slope Water throughout the continental shelf. Indeed, this region is under a strong influence of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) remotely forced from the Cabo Frio upwelling core or under a mild intrusion of SACW revealed by locally upwelled water during summer. A colder, less saline and relatively nutrient rich surface water, to the south of Brazil, is observed during winter advecting northward along the continental shelf. The horizontal spreading and mixing of this water with the Brazilian Current (BC), is another mechanism determining mesoscale patchness of phytoplanton biomass and primary production.

UPBITS - main goal is to distinguish variance due to natural variability from variance due to eventual external perturbations (anthropogenic effects). Since December 2004 we have been sampling monthly CTD, particulate matter, chlorophyll a, CDOM, primary production, dissolved oxygen, upwelling radiance, downwelling radiance, fluorescence, PAR light field, phytoplankton, zooplankton, secondary production, sediment chlorophyll, sediment bacteria, sediment lipids,benthic macrofauna (IOUSP). Also a satellite data base has been processed (INPE) which can be used to validate and improve the algorithms used to retrieve oceanographic information by remote sensing, such as; VSR - Visible Spectral Reflectance - (or ocean color), developing algorithms for remote sensing of Case II waters and identifying residuals problems, SST - Sea Surface Temperature, and wind field. UPBITS is part of the ANTARES network (www.antares.ws) which program involves the integration of continental-scale images with knowledge gained from both in situ time series and global-scale studies. Statistical Analysis in order to test seasonal differences between years, cross correlations, periodicities and power spectra has been started in a exploratory way taking into account the low degree of freedom available (n=52).

 
Electrochemical methods for autonomous chemical monitoring in marine environments

GARCON, V.1; LACOMBE, M.2; COMTAT, M.3; THOURON, D.1
1CNRS/LEGOS, FRANCE;
2CNRS/OMP, FRANCE;
3UPS/LGC, FRANCE

Monitoring the biogeochemical response of oceanic systems to environmental change is a key issue in understanding the vulnerability and resilience of marine ecosystems. Long time series of observations are particularly needed to address the links between biological and chemical processes in anthropogenically-disturbed environments and to study feedback mechanisms linked to climate change. Observations are also crucially needed in poorly explored deep sea environments (hydrothermal vents, cold seeps) to document the extreme natural chemical instabilities and improve our understanding of these amazing systems. The oceans play a crucial role in the sustainable future of humankind. They provide essential natural resources such as food, minerals, offshore energy and a route for global transport of goods and resources. However, the immensity of the oceans remains largely undersampled in both space and time. The oceans are opaque to electromagnetic radiation, which precludes the use of remote sensing beyond the surface. Water sampling is sparse, costly (~15-40 keuros ship/day), and prone to contamination. In situ sensors are the only solutions to this chronic undersampling. Physical sensors are now reaching a mature stage in development and use, due to many decades of research and testing. In contrast, biogeochemical sensors are in their infancy and are dominated by large macro, expensive, one-off devices requiring expert operation and maintenance. New strategies involve deployment of autonomous observatories. Thus this long term monitoring in marine environments requires an in situ miniaturized autonomous instrumentation able to achieve excellent figures of merit: lifetime, high precision, low detection limit, fast response time, good reproducibility, robustness, reliability, resistance to biofouling and high pressure, able of stable long-term operation, and low energy consumption. Real time transmission of collected data should be integrated and optimized. Sensors and analysers based on wet chemistry and electrochemistry techniques exist for a limited number of key-parameters of marine environments (e.g. NO3- , PO43-, Fe, Mn, Si, CO2, O2, pH). Prototypes of these systems have been widely used in situ for short-term deployments in various marine systems. At LEGOS, an Autonomous Nutrients Analyser In Situ (ANAIS) has been developed. Nitrate, phosphate, silicate are measured between 0 and 1000 m of depth when ANAIS is adapted on an eulerian YOYO profiling subsurface vehicle (Provost and Du Chaffaut, 1996). The ensemble YOYO-ANAIS nitrates was first deployed in the Western Mediterranean Sea offshore of the Blanes canyon over a two weeks period with an acquisition of two vertical profiles of nitrates concentrations per day between 200 and 1100 m (Thouron et al., 2003). Within the CLIVAR/Confluence project, the same ensemble was then deployed from the Argentinean R/V Puerto Deseado and operated during several weeks in the Southwest Atlantic ocean in the Malvinas current (41°S, 55°W). 28 vertical profiles of nitrates concentrations were obtained between March 28 and April 19, 2003. Autonomous sampling occurred at 800, 700, 600, 400, 300, 200, 100 and 80m (Figure 1) and two in situ calibration were performed per profile at the rest depth (800 m) and at the shallowest depth, 80 m. Data were recorded on Flash cards inside the YOYO body vehicle. ANAIS nitrates alone was also deployed at a coastal site (Western Mediterranean Sea offshore the bay of Banyuls sur Mer) at 23m depth on the SOLA mooring location between 2003 and 2005 within the framework of the SOMLIT (Service dObservation en Milieu Littoral) network. Four measurements per day were acquired in order to obtain high frequency data (as compared to the regular field acquisition on site every other week). Episodic events such as the Rhone river high flooding discharge or sediments resuspension due to strong swell caused by intense southeasterly winds could be observed in the data record. Comparison with classical nitrates determination was excellent especially in the low concentration range between 0.1 and 0.8 μM. However, submersible colorimetric analyzers for dissolved nutrients need significant energy and reagents, and their main drawbacks are their lack of autonomy, size and weight. Electrochemistry provides promising reagentless methods to go further in miniaturization, decrease in response time and energy requirements. Sulfide has been determined in sea water by different electrochemical methods (Lacombe et al., 2007a). First we developed potentiometric sulfide electrodes (based on an Ag/Ag2S electrode) that have been implemented from a submersible at 2300 and 3600 meters depth for short term measurements in a hydrothermal environment. Second we performed laboratory studies to set up a protocol with cyclic voltammetry (using Ag electrode) that could be more suitable for precise sulfide measurement in long term deployments. The voltammetric methods developed exhibited satisfying sensitivities for the broad range of concentration encountered in deep-sea chemosynthetic environments (from 5 µM to 10 mM). Silicate has been determined in sea water by different electrochemical methods based on the detection of the silicomolybdic complex formed in acidic media by the reaction between silicate and molybdenum salts. Cyclic voltammograms present two reduction and two oxidation peaks giving four values of the concentration and therefore increasing the precision. Then, chronoamperometry is performed on an electrode held at a constant potential. A complete reagentless method with a precision of 2.6 % is described based on the simultaneous formation of the molybdenum salt and protons in a divided electrochemical cell. Voltammetric detection of silicates was shown to be feasible within the range of concentration found in the ocean (between 0.3 and 160 µM) in about 6 minutes (Figure 2). The detection limit is 1 µM. The comparison of the voltammetric detection with the classical colorimetric analysis on seawater samples collected from the Drake Passage in the southern ocean yielded an excellent comparison. This latter method is very useful for developing a reagentless sensor suitable for long term in situ deployments on oceanic biogeochemical observatories (Lacombe et al., 2007b, Lacombe et al., 2008). This effort will be performed within the ongoing RTRA (Réseau Thématique de Recherche Avancée) Midi Pyrénées within the framework of the STAE (Sciences and Technologies for Aeronautics and Space) Foundation. Indeed the MAISOE (Microlaboratoires danalyses in situ pour des observatoires environnementaux) aims to develop and test in situ microsensors in order to measure concentrations of elements (which may be present at trace levels) and to analyse their speciation. These studied elements may either act as nutrients (silicate, and nitrate here) in phytoplankton growth (marine systems and hydrothermal fluids) or be toxic such as mercury (continental systems). Since these natural systems are very complex and hostile due to their heterogeneity and extreme conditions, it is necessary to develop anticorrosion and antifouling protection in order to obtain relevant and accurate data over time, even in remote locations. The expected products from MAISOE will be prototypes of microsensors designed to quantitative detection of the selected components, in a first step at the laboratory scale with reference materials and in a second step in natural systems. These new instruments will be inexpensive, micro-designed and robust after implementation of the different functionalities. The voltammetric method developed for silicate measurements will be adapted to determine phosphate concentrations over the concentration range found in the open and coastal oceans. Silicon and polymer-based microtechnologies will be used to integrate electrochemical principles of phosphate detection in liquid phase. A phosphate microsensor will be developed within the framework of the ongoing Initial Training Network Marie Curie SENSEnet, led by Dr Connelly from NOCS, UK. This 4-years long European combined effort will develop techniques for high performance in situ measurements of key biogeochemical parameters (e.g. phosphate and nitrate), pH, oxygen, carbon dioxide and reduced sulfur species. The technologies to be developed should be of course readily modified for use in a wide range of freshwater systems (cryosphere, lakes, rivers, groundwaters).

References: Lacombe M., Builport J.P., Garçon V., Comtat M., and Le Bris N., 2007a, Sulfide in situ measurements in deep-sea environments: actual and future tools, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol 9, 11310. Lacombe M., Garçon V., Comtat M., Oriol L., Sudre J., Thouron D., Le Bris N., and Provost C., 2007b, Silicate determination in sea water : toward a reagentless electrochemical method, Marine Chemistry, 106, 489-497. Lacombe M., Garçon V., Thouron D., Le Bris N. and Comtat M., 2008, A new electrochemical reagentless method for silicate measurement in seawater, Talanta, 77, 744-750. Provost, C., and Du Chaffaut, M., 1996, YOYO profiler : an autonomous multisensor, Sea Technology, 37(10), 39-45. Thouron D., R. Vuillemin, X. Philippon, A. Lourenço, C. Provost, A. Cruzado, and Garçon V., 2003, An Autonomous Nutrient Analyzer for Oceanic Long-Term In Situ Biogeochemical Monitoring, Analytical Chemistry, 75, 11, 2601-2609.

 
OOCMur - Coastal Ocean Observing System of Murcia Region (SE Spain, South-Western Mediterranean)
Gilabert, Javier1; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel2; Iborra, Andrés1; Martinez, Jose L.3; Ortega, Noelia3; Gilabert, Javier1; Gilabert, Javier1
1Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT), SPAIN;
2University of Murcia, SPAIN;
3Naval Technological Center, SPAIN

OOCMur (Spanish acronym for Coastal Ocean Observatory of Murcia) is a Singular Scientific and Technological Infrastructures (ICTS) to be implemented in Spain co-financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Regional Government of Murcia. It will be located in Cartagena (Murcia) 10 miles from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon the largest in the Iberian peninsula and of the largest in the Mediterranean -, 18 miles from the Cape Palos marine protected area (15 years working up to date) and 8 miles from Cape Tińoso new marine protected area to be established in 2010. The Cape of Palos is a biogeographical boundary and a transitional area between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. OOCMur is devoted to study the influence of climate change on marine ecological processes at regional scales driving marine biodiversity changes. It is a large facility open to the international research community under international peer review selection process. Land facilities include: 1) Mechanical and electronic workshops and laboratories for maintaining and development of ocean instrumentation, particularly buoys, TUVs, ROVs, AUVs and gliders, 2) Computational facilities for data assimilation and high resolution numerical modeling for operational oceanography including forecast of currents, waves, sea level, temperature, salinity and chlorophyll in a first phase and other water quality and ecosystem modeling parameters in a second phase, 3) Chemical and biological laboratories including genetic analyses of species and populations as a tool to study biodiversity and connectivity between marine populations. Sea facilities include: 1) 4 coastal buoys equipped with met stations, temperature, salinity, turbidity, chlorophyll, OD, CDOM, nitrate and ADCPs; 2) 6 deep water buoys; 3) Several underwater autonomous vehicles, 4) two cabled observatories, one from Cape Palos to its marine protected area, another in the Mar Menor Coastal lagoon. OOCMur will be integrated in European and other international networks of coastal ocean observatories.

 
Long-term temperature trends in the Bay of Bengal
Gopalakrishna, V.V.1; Boyer, T P2; Nisha, K1; Costa, J1; Dessai, K1; Vissa, V Gopalakrishna1
1National Institute of Oceanography, INDIA;
2NODC, UNITED STATES

Indian Ocean SST has been linked to rainfall patterns in Southern Africa (Reason, 2001) and in India (Clark et al., 2000. Longterm changes in Indian Ocean SST may have an effect on East African rainfall patterns Trsaska et al., 2002). In the Bay of Bengal, warming SSTs have been linked to decreased storm activity (Jodhav and Munot, 2007). Despite a significant increase in Bay of Bengal SST since 1960 (Jodhav and Munot, 2008) and overall in the North Indian Ocean (Rajaveen et al. 2000), the heat content for the Northern Indian Ocean as a whole shows no significant increase in the top 700 meters (Levitus et al., 2005. It is important to understand the subsurface heat content and understand the connection with SST. Is the subsurface North Indian Ocean affecting and possibly ameliorating the increased SST? Or are the two significant basins in the North Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal exhibiting opposing behavior with respects to ocean heat content, with one cooling and the other warming, resulting in no obvious trend in ocean heat content? With the XBT lines in the Bay of Bengal, we have a convenient time series (1989-present) with multiple samplings in most years, with which to investigate surface and subsurface temperature changes to answer the questions posed above, which have significant societal impact, and to continue to monitor changes in the future. Argo floats can assist in this monitoring, but add the complication of a completely different monitoring system with irregular sampling in the area along the time series XBT lines. The consistent 20 year monitoring provided by the XBT lines should continue into the future. Some results of preliminary work looking at long term change in the Bay of Bengal are presented. The XBT time series provided by NIO-India shown in the red box were binned by year after statistical removal of the XBT bias and subtraction of the climatological monthly mean temperature as per Levitus et al. (submitted. Figure 2 shows temperature anomaly at the sea surface (black), and temperature anomaly at 600 meters depth (red). Both exhibit a trend of increasing temperature. Figure 3 shows the temperature anomaly at the surface (black) again along with temperature anomaly at 100 meters depth. The temperature anomaly at 100 meters depth exhibits strong year to year variability (note the larger intervals on the temperature axis) and no long term trend. This is near the depth of the thermocline in this area. It may be that, while the surface and 600 meters show significantly increasing temperatures, depths inbetween do not exhibit the increase, and are at times, opposite in sign to the upper and lower depths. This type of study, which is preliminary, can only be performed using the long-time series provided by the XBT lines in the Bay of Bengal. Maintaining the lines will extend this work into the future and provide crucial information on climate change in the North Indian Ocean.

 
The Peruvian climate observing system: A Synthesis, Capitalizing opportunities and Perspectives
Grados, C.1; Chaigneau, A.2; Graco, M.1; Ledesma, J.1; Vasquez, L.1; Testor, P.2; Dewitte, B.3; Echevin, V.2; Correa, D.1; Silvestre, E.4; Gutierrez, D.1; Ayon, P.1; Sanchez, S.1; Takahashi, K.5; Silva, Y.5
1IMARPE, PERU;
2LOCEAN, FRANCE;
3LEGOS, FRANCE;
4SENAMHI, PERU;
5IGP, PERU

The coastal ocean of the North Humboldt Current System (NHCS) presents remarkable features. Firstly, it is the most productive region of the world oceans in terms of fisheries, producing close to an order of magnitude more fish per unit area than any other region in the world. This extremely rich fisheries is due to a permanent coastal upwelling which brings into the euphotic zone, cold and nutrient-rich deep water allowing the increase of biological productivity. Secondly, the NHCS exhibits a relatively complex circulation and encompasses distinct water masses from both equatorial and subantarctic origins. Mesoscale and submesoscale features, principally generated near the coast and propagating offshore, allow the transfer of physical and biogeochemical properties toward the open ocean. Thirdly, it encompasses the most pronounced and extended subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) playing an important role on the resource distribution and on climate by regulating the exchange of greenhouse gases -CO2 and N2O- with the atmosphere. Finally, superimposed to these oceanic features, the NHCS is also characterized by the largest and most poorly-observed subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth having important repercussions on the radiative energy budget and hence on climate. Based on these statements, and knowing that all the compartments of the NHCS ecosystem, from the physics to biogeochemistry and upper layer trophic chain, are strongly modulated by the equatorial dynamics at different timescales, this region appears as a key site to study the impacts of climate variability and climate change and its global consequences.

This report presents the observational strategies routinely performed by the Peruvian Marine Research Institute (IMARPE) and the National Service of Meteorology and Hidrography (SENAMHI) since 1960 to investigate and follow-up the state of the NHCS fisheries and the associated environment. The resultant dataset is analyzed in order to provide analytical environmental pieces of information and to understand the modes of variability of the NHCS and prevent their societal and economic impacts. This is a priority task for the Peruvian Government, due to the vulnerability of this country to extreme El Nino Southern Oscillation events and climate change.

We also present the recent observational efforts which consisted to extend the routinely observational networks by deploying relatively new available technologies such as Argo floats, SVP drifters and autonomous underwater vehicles (glider). Cooperative, sinergistic multidisciplinary projects have been recently undertaken to generate comprehensive meteorological, physical, biogeochemical, paleooceanography and fishery datasets. For example, two-high-resolution mesoscale surveys were realized in February and October 2008. The first, "Filamentos", was dedicated to the study of a near-coastal filament in northern Peru. The second, the "VOCALS Peru cruise" (Figure 1), in the frame of the international VOCALS (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study) Regional experiment, aimed at understanding air-sea interactions in the active upwelling region off Pisco (14°S) and San Juan (15°30´S) and their impacts on the local ecosystem. These new survey programs considerably improve sampling strategies and allow resolving mesoscale and submesoscale oceanic structures leading to a better understanding of the oceanic-biogeochemical coupling and cross-shore exchanges.

However, the NHCS still suffers for a lack of continuous and sustained observations. It is thus actually planned to enhance the existing hydrographic and the associated meteorological databases with new observations and capabilities. The proposed system considers long-term deep moorings at key sites with the aim at resolving the alongshore propagation of upper oceanic signals and wave dynamics in the NHCS. Repetitive glider experiments are expected to document permanently the cross-shore transport at meso and submesoscale scale from coastal regions to the offshore ocean off Pisco. The proposed observations are expected to contribute improving the forecasting skills of coupled ocean-atmosphere models by assimilating 3D ocean in-situ observations towards predicting the intra-seasonal and interannual variability, as well as the impacts of climate change.

 
On the use of satellite altimeter data in Argo quality control
Guinehut, S.1; Coatanoan, C.2; Dhomps, A.-L.1; Le Traon, P.-Y.2; Larnicol, G.1
1CLS, Space Oceanography Division, FRANCE;
2Ifremer, FRANCE

A new method has been developed to check the quality of each Argo profiling floats time series. It compares collocated Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) from altimeter measurements and Dynamic Height Anomalies (DHA) calculated from the Argo temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles. By exploiting the correlation that exists between the two data sets along with mean representative statistical differences between the two, the altimeter measurements are used to extract random or systematic errors in the Argo float time series. Different kinds of anomalies (sensor drift, bias, spikes, etc) have been identified on some real-time but also delayed-mode Argo floats. This method is actually deployed in near real-time in order to separate rapidly suspicious floats for more careful examination.

 
The Voluntary Observing Ship Climate Project (VOSClim)
Hall, Alan1; Kent, Elizabeth2; Berry, David2; North, Sarah3; Parrett, Colin4; Woodruff, Scott5; Freeman, Eric6
1USDOC NOAA, UNITED STATES;
2National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UNITED KINGDOM;
3VOSClim Project Leader, UNITED KINGDOM;
4UK Met Office, UNITED KINGDOM;
5Chair JCOMM Expert Team on Marine Climatology, UNITED STATES;
6NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, UNITED STATES

Abstract
This poster describes the Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) Climate Project (VOSClim), its current status and recommendations for the future. The background to VOSClim is described along with current data management and monitoring procedures. The role of VOSClim in providing high quality data is outlined and examples shown of the use of VOSClim data. Finally the advantages of extending VOSClim practices to all VOS are discussed.

Description
VOSClim is currently a project within the Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) VOS Scheme that provides a high-quality subset of marine meteorological data, with extensive associated metadata, made available in delayed mode to support global climate studies. All VOSClim ships are also VOS (Kent et al. Community White Paper (CWP)) and are selected based on their past observing performance and specific instrumentation with the goal to provide the highest quality observations. A need for higher quality marine meteorological data has been identified by, inter alia, the Ocean Observing System Development Panel (OOSDP,1995), the Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC, 1998), and the JSC/SCOR Working Group on Air Sea Fluxes (WGASF, 2000). The observations made by all VOS and VOSClim ships are needed for marine climatological applications (Woodruff/Scott et al. CWP, Worley et al. CWP, Rayner et al. CWP) and for air-sea interaction datasets (Fairall et al. CWP).

Normal delayed-mode VOS reports (Woodruff/Scott et al. CWP) are augmented with several parameters (relative wind speed and direction and information on ship speed, course and loading) that allow better characterization and adjustment of regularly reported elements such as wind direction and speed, sea level pressure, sea surface temperature, air temperature and humidity. For those primary variables, the Real-Time Monitoring Centre (RTMC) at the UK Met Office appends forecast model parameters to the real-time ship report.

The RTMC produces monthly monitoring information on VOSClim ships based on observation differences from the UK Met Office short range forecasts. Poorer quality observations of the primary variables are considered to be suspect. The criteria for labeling VOSClim ships as suspect are stricter than those used for non-VOSClim ships. However, the percentages of suspect ships are very similar for both VOSClim and non-VOSClim (e.g. 2.1% for pressure), which reflects the higher quality data obtained from VOSClim ships. Suspect lists are circulated to VOSClim focal points each month, enabling action to be taken to correct any problems.

Since July 2002, all project data and information have been assembled at the projects Data Assembly Centre (DAC) at NOAAs National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The high-quality data from the project will be used to provide a reference for possible adjustment of observations from the entire VOS fleet and for a range of applications including validation of satellite observations and model output

It is proposed to transition the project to an operational component of the VOS Scheme and to progressively apply VOSClim enhanced practice standards to the regular VOS. Improved links of VOS and VOSClim data management with climate datasets such as ICOADS (Worley et al. CWP) will facilitate the use of VOSClim data more widely by the scientific community.

 
EuroSITES: The Cental Irminger Sea (CIS) Observatory
Johannes, Karstensen1; Send, Uwe2; Villagarcia, Marimar G.3; Kötzinger, Arne1; Lampitt, Richard4
1Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), GERMANY;
2Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, UNITED STATES;
3Instituto Canario de Ciencias Marinas, SPAIN;
4National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UNITED KINGDOM

Deep water formation is a key process for the global overturning circulation. The Irminger Sea is one of the few deep water formation areas in the North Atlantic. In the Irminger Sea deep water formation has found to intermittent depending on the local and large scale oceanic and atmospheric state. The CIS observatory was established in 2002 and designed to study the variability of and the interaction between physical and biological and chemical processes in a deep water formation area. The backbone of the observatory is a steel wire mooring with a number of autonomous recording instruments attached to it. A telemetry buoy allows real-time data access for most of the instruments. Public access of the data is achieved via the DAC at NOC and the GDAC Coriolis. Selected research highlights of the CIS observatory will be presented as well as future plans for this observatory.

 
Quality Control of Argo Surface Trajectory Data Considering Position Errors Fixed by ARGOS System
Kobayashi, Taiyo1; Nakamura, Tomoaki1; Ogita, Naoko1; Nakajima, Hiroyuki2
1JAMSTEC, JAPAN;
2Marine Works Japan, JAPAN

To estimate global surface and subsurface velocities is another goal of Argo, the array of numerous profiling floats. Here, we introduce an automatic quality control (QC) method of Argo float position data. The method identifies suspicious float positions based on float's speed estimated from the surface trajectory as follows. Considering a segment composed by two temporal-continuous positions, one position, at least, is identified suspicious if float speed on the segment is estimated at 3 m/sec or faster. A position with less accurate ARGOS flag of the segment is determined suspicious. If both are fixed with the same accuracy by ARGOS system, the suspicious one is determined by relation among the segment and the temporally back/forth positions of the float trajectory. In case that the distance between the positions is less than the error range determined by ARGOS position errors of them, both positions are considered to be acceptable. The method gives us fairly reasonable QC results which are comparable with those by visual inspection of experts. Several percents of position data are identified suspicious in average.

This method seems appropriate as a standard QC method of Argo trajectory data. It is better that the QC method works as a preliminary QC and that it is succeeded by a more sophisticated inter- and extrapolating scheme (i.e., 'delayed-mode QC') to estimate actual float movements and locations where a float arrives at and departs from sea surface.

 
The Italian Operational Observing System: Distributed Data Collection and Information Systems
Manzella, G.M.R.1; Bozzano, R.2; Ravaioli, M.3; Poulain, P.4; Reseghetti, F.1; Cardi, V.4; Coppini, G.5; Pinardi, N.6
1ENEA ACS, ITALY;
2CNR ISSIA, ITALY;
3CNR ISMAR, ITALY;
4IN OGS, ITALY;
5INGV, ITALY;
6Bologna University & INGV, ITALY

In September 1999, a operational observing system was launched in the Mediterranean as part of the Mediterranean Forecasting System project. Initially the observing systems was composed by Ships Of Opportunity, deep sea buoys. This constituted the observational component of the Mediterranean Forecasting System - Pilot Project. Successively also gliders and lagrangian profiling floats were added, as part of the Mediterranean Forecasting System - Toward Environmental Protection. A coastal observing network has been added in the framewotk of sub/regional projects such as Adricoms. In these frameworks, innovative real-time data management system were developed. Purposes and role of an operational sampling system were defined in the period 1999 - 2000, mainly for new methodologies in data transmission and quality control. The Italian Group of Operational Oceanography is continuing the data collection in Italian Seas and the Mediterranean providing data to regional, sub/regional and coastal forecasting systems. Data are transmitted in full resolution (except for profiling floats) to Data Assembling Centres and the near real time quality control procedures included all the steps defined for delayed mode data. The observational system is composed by four main elements: Data collection (including sampling design); Implementation of quality control (QC) methodologies and protocols; Implementation of technologies for data collection and transmission; Near real time (NRT) data management, information system and services. Although the limitation in number of parameters collected (XBT temperature profiles for the large scale monitoring system and CTD+O2 for the coastal areas, meteo parameters for deep sea and coasta areas), the data allows the description of interactions between shelf and deep-sea waters. This multidisciplinary - multiplatform data provision is only one component of the Italian operational system. It is complemented by assimilation, optimal estimation of parameters field, and prediction of the marine environmental state variables. The different blocks are interconnected in order to assure an efficient flow of high quality data/products. This is done through the information management systems residing in all components. The mission of the information system is to facilitate the access to data, products and information through a distributed system of portals. This is done with a technical and management plan that is supporting the evolving information management needs:

  • Guidelines for data originators (laboratories and institutes participating to the operational data collection);
  • Requirements and priorities of data users (operational systems, research, public authorities, students and general public);
  • How data and products are available to users (services for selection, viewing and access);
  • Functional and system requirements (assure some interoperable elements in order to be part of a larger network).

    The mission charter must also define the 'basic services' to be provided to all users, and the 'specific services' to be provided to specialised users. Basic services are: Data discovery - the possibility to find data through a catalogue by means of a user-friendly interface. Data view - the possibility to have a quick look to data, in order to establish if data are useful to user. A specific service is the data access (free or under restricted conditions) on the base of the business rule. A central portal is providing links to the data assembling centres portals, where different services are offered, and in particular: discovery, view, selection, downloading. All data are normally accessible within 24 hours from data collection.

  •  
    REAL TIME MARINE DATA ACQUISITION: A PROPOSAL FOR A NEW JOINT COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATORY NETWORK IN ADRIATIC SEA
    Marini, M.1; Bastianini, M.2; Bortoluzzi, G.3; Focaccia, P.3; Paschini, E.1; Penna, P.1; Pugnetti, A.2; Ravaioli, M.3; Raicich, F.4; Spagnoli, F.1
    1CNR ISMAR Ancona, ITALY;
    2CNR ISMAR Venezia, ITALY;
    3CNR ISMAR Bologna, ITALY;
    4CNR ISMAR Trieste, ITALY

    Currently, several operational marine centres issue routine seasonal forecasts produced with coupled ocean-atmosphere models. For good result they require also real-time knowledge of the state of marine area as regard as oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. Effectiveness of marine climate knowledge and predictability resides in fast, reliable, scattered and numerous information on the initial marine and atmospheric conditions. The aim of this work is to present a review of the existing real time stations in the Adriatic sea and a critic state of the art with the aim to propose a new single and standardized coastal oceanographic observatory network based on previous existing oceanographic buoys set up by different projects and institutions and with various features. The network ISMAR could be based on various oceanographic buoys located along the Adriatic Sea coastal waters transmitting real time data, accessible, after a data quality control and sensor/instrument field calibration validation, on internet by a web site. In this way it will possible to have a single system of real time oceanographic and meteorological standardized data available for regional stakeholders, policy makers, economic operators, environmental safety and tourists. Data will also useful to improve forecast systems active for the Adriatic Sea; finally it will greatly improve the knowledge of the main hydrological and meteorological forcing factors in a LTER (Long Term Ecological Research) study area where decadal time series on ecological studies are collected in a collaborative joint effort to depict trends in the trophic status and biogeochemical proprieties of the basin. The principal projects involved are: Adricosm, Vector, Emma-Life, Interreg, PITAGEM, PRISMA.

     
    Low-cost, Robust and Easy-to-Deploy Surface Moorings for Tsunami and Climate Observations
    Meinig, C1; Milburn, H2; Bernard, E1; Lawrence-Slavas, N1; Stalin, S1; Gliege, B3
    1National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environmental Lab, UNITED STATES;
    2Sole Proprietor, UNITED STATES;
    3Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, UNITED STATES

    Over the past 45 years, surface moorings have yielded valuable data for improved understanding of the worlds oceans. However, today's deep-ocean mooring technology has changed very little over these 45 years and requires expensive infrastructure costs including, 1) large and expensive buoys, 2) dedicated ships and highly specialized crew, 3) complex deck operations that are potential dangerous and, 4) limited real-time subsurface capabilities. To meet future needs in making global ocean observations at affordable costs, a next generation surface mooring technology is being developed at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Lab in Seattle, Washington. For tsunami monitoring a DART-ETD (Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis-Easy to Deploy) is in the advanced prototype stage and for climate monitoring a PICO (Platform and Instrumentation for Continuous Observations) has had encouraging results in preliminary field trials.

    The next generation mooring technology has several desirable features for making sustained global observations, including: 1)Safe and dramatically simplified deployments, 2) 'Factory-built' pre-palletized design, 3)Vandal resistant features, 4) Deep water, high latitude capable, 5)Significantly lower cost of operations. Further development and testing is required, but year long deployments in high and low-latitudes have been very encouraging and have proven that the mooring concept is viable for tsunami warning and climate observations.

     
    High Resolution Current Velocity Profiling Argo Floats: Preliminary Results From Subantarctic Waters.
    Meyer, A1; Phillips, H.E.1; Bindoff, N.L.2; Sloyan, B.M.3
    1Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania, AUSTRALIA;
    2Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania; CSIRO Marine and Atmosphe, AUSTRALIA;
    3CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart., AUSTRALIA

    The EM-APEX (ElectroMagnetic-Autonomous Profiling EXplorer) is a recent addition to the Argo float fleet, capable of making very precise measurements of ocean velocities over a wide spatial and temporal range. These floats not only have the standard CTD package, but also carry an electromagnetic subsystem, which measures the motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean currents moving through the vertical component of the Earth�s magnetic field.

    Within the framework of the SOFINE (Southern Ocean Finestructure project) experiment, eight EM-APEX floats were deployed along the Subantarctic Front at the Northern Edge of the Kerguelen Plateau in November 2008. Over a two month period, these floats collected four vertical profiles a day with a resolution of 2 dbar for temperature and salinity and 5 dbar for horizontal velocity within the region of interest (65-75°E, 41-48°S).

    The rapid profiling combined with the high resolution of these floats provides a clear picture of the physical properties in the top 1600 m of the water column, with over 1300 profiles of temperature, salinity and horizontal velocity processed. The dense coverage of the temperature and salinity field shows strong along-track watermass property variations in time and space. When investigating vertical mixing, patterns of unstable turbulent patches in Thorpe scales track the evolution of internal waves and other dynamic features.

     
    In situ chemical pCO2 sensor with autonomous drifting buoy system
    Nakano, Yoshiyuki1; Fujiki, Tetsuichi2; Wakita, Masahide2; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko3; Watanabe, Shuichi2
    1Marine Technology Center, JAMSTEC, JAPAN;
    2Mutsu Institute for Oceanography, JAMSTEC, JAPAN;
    3Bedford Institute of Oceanography, CANADA

    To assess the spatial and temporal variations of surface pCO2 in the global ocean, new automated pCO2 sensor which can be used in platform systems such as buoys or moorings is strongly desired. We have been developing the small drifting buoy system (diameter 250-340 mm, length 470 mm, weight 15 kg) for pCO2 measurement. The measurement principle for the pCO2 sensor is based on spectrophotometry. The pCO2 is calculated from the optical absorbance of the pH indicator solution equilibrated with CO2 in seawater through a gas permeable membrane. The measured data were transmitted to the laboratory by satellite communication (Argos system). One of the challenges we faced was developing an anti-biofouling paint for the buoy and pCO2 sensor. Minimizing toxicity is important for the buoy system. In order to reduce the effects of biofouling on the sensors, we tried the antifouling tests with some paints in our port side (Aomori, Japan) for 18.5 months. Following tests, the silicon type paint was adapted as an anti-biofouling paint for drifting buoy. To test the long-term durability and effect of anti-biofouling, the buoy systems were moored with TRITON buoy in the western tropical Pacific Ocean (2N, 156E) and with K-TRITON buoy in the western North Pacific Ocean (38N, 146.5E). Our first deployment of drifting buoy system was made in the east Labrador Sea in May 2008, with the support of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography. The buoy system is measuring sea-surface pCO2 four times a day and every six days intervals. We succeeded in obtaining the data for six months. Moreover, we deployed the two drifting buoys in Antarctic Ocean and Western North Pacific in January and March 2009, respectively. The planned lifetime of buoy systems, is about 1 year.

     
    Australian ocean observing systems, and bio-optical and biogeochemical observations of the East Australian current
    Oubelkheir, K.1; Suthers, Iain M.2; Baird, Mark E.3; Doblin, Martina A.4; Ralph, Peter J.4; Steven, Andrew D.L.3
    1UTS-CSIRO, AUSTRALIA;
    2UNSW, AUSTRALIA;
    3CSIRO, AUSTRALIA;
    4UTS, AUSTRALIA

    The East Australian Current (EAC) is a major oceanographic feature along the Australian coast and has an important impact on biogeochemical and biological dynamics of this region. The meso-scale warm- and cold-core eddies and coastal upwelling associated with the EAC make it a particularly complex system where the coupling between physical and biogeochemical processes is poorly understood. Autonomous ocean gliders equipped with miniature bio-optical sensors (WETLabs ECO-Puck) were deployed off the coast of New South Wales during November 2008 (anticyclonic eddy) and March 2009 (cyclonic eddy) for a better understanding of the role of entrainment and source water on eddy significance, regional productivities and larvae recruitment/fisheries. The ECO-Puck optical measurements provide proxies for some key biogeochemical quantities such as chlorophyll a and coloured dissolved organic matter content (from fluorescence measurements) as well as particle load and particulate organic carbon for open ocean waters (from backscattering coefficient measurements). These routine in situ glider observations will be complemented by in situ high frequency bio-optical measurements/biogeochemical determinations during research cruises and synoptic remote sensing observations of physical parameters (eg, SST) and biogeochemical quantities (eg, chlorophyll, total suspended matter, coloured dissolved organic matter). This multi-disciplinary/multi-tools approach will provide a better understanding of the factors driving phytoplankton, particulate and dissolved organic matter dynamics, and the associated organic carbon fluxes, in the EAC. This study is part of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), a nation-wide collaborative program designed to observe/monitor the coastal and open oceans around Australia. As part of this program, bio-optical observations are conducted from a large range of platforms such as gliders, moorings, AUVs, ships of opportunity and Argo floats. This large arsenal of bio-optical/biogeochemical observing systems deployed around Australia will allow a better understanding of the factors driving the biogeochemical dynamics in different ecosystems, and the impact of climate change on coastal and open oceans.

     
    Oceanographic Observations of the Australian Continental Shelf and Slope Waters Using Autonomous Ocean Gliders
    Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Hollings, Ben; Woo, Mun
    The University of Western Australia, AUSTRALIA

    Ocean gliders are autonomous vehicles designed to operate in water depths up to 1000 m. By changing its buoyancy, the glider is able to descend and ascend. This momentum is converted to forward motion by its wings. Pitch adjustments are made by moving an internal mass (battery pack) and steering is done using a rudder and/or battery packs. Moving at an average horizontal velocity of 25 - 40 cm s-1 the glider navigates its way to a series of pre-programmed waypoints using GPS, internal dead reckoning and altimeter measurements. The gliders are programmed to provide data through satellite communication when it is at the surface and it is also possible to control the path of the glider during its mission. Depending on the type of glider and the number of vertical dives, the endurance of a glider ranges between 1 and 6 months. The Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (ANFOG) has been established as part of the Integrated Marine Observation System (IMOS) for Australia. ANFOG will develop a fleet of 9 gliders using two different types of gliders. The Slocum glider is designed to operate to a maximum depth of 200m and a maximum endurance of 30 days, whilst the Seaglider is able to operate to a maximum depth of 1000m and a maximum endurance time of up to 6 months. Both gliders have the same suite of sensors to measure conductivity (for salinity), temperature, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity and CDOM (dissolved organic matter) with depth. In this presentation, operation of the ocean gliders will be highlighted using deployments from the entrance to Spencer Gulf; shelf waters off Sydney (NSW) and Fremantle (WA) and, shelf and slope waters off Tasmania.

    Spencer Gulf is a reverse estuary located along the south coast of Australia (Figure 1a). High evaporation in the upper reaches of the estuary results in the formation of a high salinity water mass which exists the Gulf as a gravity current which is modulated by the spring/neap tidal cycle. Ocean glider data obtained at the entrance to the Bay in January 2009 did not indicate a constant near bed outflow of water: higher salinity water was present at mid-depth and was modulated by the tidal cycle.

    The shelf waters of Sydney are influenced by the East Australian current - the western boundary current of the south Pacific. The current is strong and eddies and meanders are common features of the current. A Slocum glider was used to monitor the physical and biological processes within an eddy and revealed strong physical/biological interaction (Figure 2a).

    The continental shelf waters off Fremantle are influences by the southward flowing warmer, lower salinity Leeuwin current generally located along the 200m isobath and during the summer months the Capes current, a colder wind driven current generally located inshore of the 50m isobath. The Capes current, has a higher productivity due to upwelling. Slocum missions have monitored the both these current systems with cross-shore transects undertaken weekly to fortnightly. The glider data clearly identified the interaction between these two current systems (Figure 2b).

    The Seaglider deployments off eastern Tasmania monitored the East Australian current in this region - the glider was entrained into an eddy and revealed very strong currents within the region (Figure 1d).

     
    IN-SITU DELAYED MODE AT CORIOLIS DATA CENTER
    Pertuisot, C.; Coatanoan, C; Brion, E; Carval, T; Petit de la Villeon, L; Gaillard, F
    IFREMER, FRANCE

    End of 2007, the Coriolis Data Center has set up a new product dedicated to operational oceanographic centers that want to perform re-analysis on a delayed mode basis. The release 2007 covers the period 2002-2006, and the release 2008 is extended to 1990-2007. In addition to the near real time validation done on a daily and weekly basis for the forecasting needs, it has been decided to create a reference dataset updated on a yearly basis. The new procedure has involved an objective analysis method (statistical tests) with a visual quality control (QC) on the suspicious profiles, and has been developed to improve the database content and to fit the level required by the physical ocean re-analysis activities. The quality control process uses two runs of objective analysis, corresponding to two different time windows, with an additional visual control in between. The first run is done on a three weeks window to capture the most doubtful profiles which are visually checked by an operator to decide whether or not they are bad data or real oceanic phenomena. Whereas the second run is operated on a weekly basis for the modeling needs. The reprocessing of both releases is global and annual delayed analysis of the content of the database and an additional validation of the dataset collected in real time and delayed mode during this 17 years period. Each release provides T and S weekly gridded fields and individual profiles both on their original levels and interpolated levels. These Coriolis products are available on different servers using different technologies (ftp, OPeNDAP and web). http://www.coriolis.eu.org/cdc/global_dataset_release_2007.htm http://www.coriolis.eu.org/cdc/global_dataset_release_2008.htm

     
    The POSEIDON reference time-series stations of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
    Petihakis, George1; Nittis, Kostas1; Ballas, Dionysis1; Kassis, Dimitris1; Pagonis, Paris1; Perivoliotis, Leonidas1; Drakopoulos, Panos2
    1Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, GREECE;
    2Technological Educational Institute of Athens, GREECE

    Monitoring the marine environment apart from being a challenge for the scientific community has been acknowledged as a top most priority to support policy making and environmental management. In a dynamic and continuously changing marine system, important issues such as eutrophication, overfishing, climatic change and natural hazards require the long term tracking of key variables. The Mediterranean Sea although has long been considered as a single functional climatic, ecological, economic and social system, in reality it displays a great variability. The Greek seas are characterized by a complex morphology as a result of the geologic history of the eastern Mediterranean and the recent geodynamic processes. This complex morphology together with the narrow shelf and the particularly deep basins create a unique ecosystem characterized as an important area of dense water formation (following the Adriatic Sea), while abrupt changes in its hydrology and dynamics have affected the entire eastern Mediterranean.
    Responding to the need of marine observations the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR) has established a Monitoring, Forecasting and Information System for the Greek Seas named POSEIDON (http://www.poseidon.hcmr.gr). Considering both the variability of the system and the need for high frequency information a mixture of platforms was chosen, ranging from coastal buoys equipped with few basic met-ocean sensors to open sea stations with an extensive list of sensors targeted to both physical and biochemical process and their coupling at various time scales. Two multi-parametric deep water observatories currently operate: the Poseidon E1-M3A mooring operating in the Cretan Sea since 2000, and the recently (February 2007) deployed Poseidon Pylos mooring site that operates in the SE Ionian Sea. These two systems recently became parts of an integrated network of deep European observatories developed in the framework of EuroSITES (http://www.eurosites.info/) project (EU-FP7) that will coordinate the European contribution to OceanSITES.
    The E1-M3A observatory of the Cretan Sea is oriented towards air-sea interaction studies, biochemical processes in the euphotic zone and variability of intermediate and deep water mass characteristics. Its payload (see table) includes a) an extended set of meteorological sensors including those for relative humidity and precipitation, b) a series of radiometers including multispectral sensors for radiance and irradiance, c) optical and biochemical sensors (chl-a, turbidity, PAR, DO) in the upper 100m and d) sensors for physical parameters (T, S) in the upper 1000m. The antifouling methods that have been used for the recently upgraded E1-M3A observatory under the POSEIDON-II project, were based on the experience of the early deployments of the system and have significantly improved the quality of the data.
    The Pylos observatory of the Ionian Sea is equipped with standard meteorological sensors hosted by the surface buoy and CTs for the upper 1000m of the water column. An autonomous seabed platform transmitting data to the surface buoy through hydro-acoustic modems is also tested for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. The platform has been originally developed for Tsunami detection based on the design of the DART system but has been expanded to host a SBE16 for salinity and temperature measurements.
    The planed upgrades of the system include the introduction of pCO2 and pH sensors to support climate variability related studies. The first pCO2 sensor was introduced in the E1-M3A observatory (1m depth) in July 2009 delivering for the first time such a time-series in the Aegean Sea and allowing a pre-operational assessment of these systems. An ongoing upgrade of the Pylos site aims to extend the capabilities of the seabed platform. A new platform with increased energy autonomy and an expandable central processing system able to host new sensors including DO, turbidity, CO2 and pH will be developed during the next 2 years under the POSEIDON-III project.

     
    PROVIDING AN OCEAN IN SITU DATA SERVICE FOR THE NEEDS OF OPERATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY
    Petit de la Villeon, L.; Coatanoan, C; Carval, T; Bernard, V; Pertuisot, C; Pouliquen, S
    IFREMER, FRANCE

    Seven French research agencies involved in ocean research and ocean predictions are together developping a strong capability in operational oceanography based on three components including altimetry (Jason), digital modelling with assimilation (Mercator) and in situ data service (Coriolis). The Coriolis data centre aims to collect, quality control and distribute ocean data worldwide in both near real-time and delayed formats for assimilation and validation purposes. Furthermore, the Coriolis data centre is able to deliver products such as T & S fields and reference datasets. To be able to deliver such a global dataset, the Coriolis data centre plays an important role in three major JCOMM projects: - The Argo project, where the Coriolis data centre acts as one of the two global data centres. The comprehensive Argo dataset is available via the Coriolis server. This dataset holds the data from 3039 active profiling floats (July 1st 2009). - The GOSUD project, which aims to process and distribute sea surface data collected by both research vessels and merchant ships when they are at sea. For the moment, only SST & SSS surface data are taken into account but the objective is to extend the project to include other parameters such as oxygen, fluorescence or PCO˛. The Coriolis data centre is one of two GOSUD global data centres. Since the beginning of 2008, forty ships have sent surface data to the Coriolis data centre - The OCEANSITES project which collects and processes data from deep open ocean time series sites. Data from 60 different platforms deep sea moorings are available at the Coriolis data centre which acts as one of the two global data centres In order to complement this dataset collected within the projects mentionned above, connections to the GTS the WMO network for data exchanges- have been implemented to retrieve any of the ocean data which were not part of the three projects Argo, Gosud and OceanSites. All the datasets described above are freely distributed on a daily or regular basis via different servers using different technologies (ftp, OPENDAP, Thredds and web). From this complete dataset, value added products are produced and delivered regularly. The reprocessing of the 1990-2007 period produced a global data set better validated that provides three products: T & S gridded fields, individual quality controlled profiles both at original and interpolated levels.

     
    GOSUD : Global Ocean Surface Underway data Pilot Project
    Petit de la Villéon, L.1; the international partners , & contributors2
    1Ifremer, FRANCE;
    2of the GOSUD project, FRANCE

    Introduction The Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) Project is a project from IODE Intergovernmental Ocean Data and information Exchange Committee of UNESCO. It is designed as an end to end system for surface data collected by ships at sea. Objectives The main objective of GOSUD is to collect, process, archive and disseminate in real-time and delayed mode, sea surface salinity and other variables collected underway, by research and volunteer ships. The data reach the GOSUD database either by extraction from the Global Telecommunications Systems (GTS), the world wide data exchange network of the national meteorological agencies, or by direct submission from the ship operators. The data that are centralized in the GOSUD database are distributed for scientific studies and are also used for validation of ocean models. In the very near future, sea surface salinity data that are gathered in GOSUD will be a major contribution to validate the surface salinity data that will be collected by the SMOS (European Space Agency) and AQUARIUS (USA) satellites. They will be respectively launched during autumn 2009 and 2010. Progress accomplished during the 10 last years Development of the GOSUD Project began in 2000 with expressions of interest at the IODE meeting in Lisbon, Portugal. A preliminary meeting was held in Brest, France, in November, 2001 at which a strategy to develop a project plan was agreed. The Sea Surface Salinity data that have been acquired during the WOCE period has been integrated in the GOSUD dataset as the source of historical data. Since then, efforts have been done to gather data either by direct submission or by extraction from the GTS. In 2009, 65 ships are reporting data on a regular basis with a maximum of 70 ships in April 2009. The major data set that is directly provided to GOSUD is related to the IRD network of merchant ships (ORE Sea Surface Salinity). An important contribution to the project comes from the data collected on voluntary ships of the SeaKeepers Society Use of the data - Scientific studies - Sea Surface Salinity variability and trends in the tropical Pacific - Elaborating a Sea Surface temperature and Salinity climatology - Vertical and Horizontal Structure of the Sea Surface Salinity - Global Sea Surface Salinity variability - Validation purposes - Study of the vertical variability of surface salinity. - Best understanding the vertical differences of the 10 first meters of the ocean in order to link the vertical profiles measurements to the surface data. - Validation of the SMOS & Aquarius satellites data Next steps - Enlarge the network. The project is still seeking for new data providers especially for data collected at high latitudes - Elaborate a delayed mode dataset using calibration coefficients and water samples. This is a requirement for accurate scientific studies - Increase the effort to collect accurate meta-data - Implement the new format that has been defined to hold both meta-data, near real-time data and delayed mode data - Extend to more parameters (O2 , fluorescence) in cooperation with FerryBox

     
    Underwater Vision Profiler- a sensor for detailed assessment of particles (> 100 µm) and large plankton distribution
    Picheral, Marc1; Stemmann, Lars2; Guidi, Lionel3; Karl, Dave3; Legendre, Louis4; Gorsky, Gabriel1
    1CNRS-LOV, FRANCE;
    2University Pierre et Marie Curie, FRANCE;
    3University of Hawaii, UNITED STATES;
    4Université Pierre et Marie Curie, FRANCE

    The Underwater Vision Profiler (UVP) records simultaneously the abundances and size distributions of particles >100 µm and mesozooplankton in the water column (0-3000 m) at a rate of 5 Hz (i.e. one image every 20 cm with a lowering speed of 1 ms-1). The images are treated and analyzed in real time, and when the UVP is interfaced with a CTD, the distribution of particles can be displayed in real time together with the CTD data. The UVP is a compact (weighs 30 kg in air) and self-powered system that can be mounted within a CTD-Rosette frame. It can also be adapted to other vectors, and be used on moorings for long-term monitoring. The main watertight cylinder contains the following components: optics, intelligent camera, pressure and angle sensors, acquisition and piloting board, internet switch, hard drive and dedicated electronic power boards. Collimated light is delivered by red light-emitting diodes of 625 nm wavelength housed in two independent glass cylinders, illuminating a field of view of 4x20 cm that corresponds to a volume per image of 1.02 L. At each deployment of the rosette, the UVP acquires the size distribution of particles and different attributes of each object >100 µm, and it simultaneously extracts vignettes of objects >600 µm (mostly large marine snow and mesozooplankton). The publicly available Zooprocess and Plankton Identifier softwares developed at the Laboratoire dOcéanographie de Villefranche, France, provide tools to sort and cluster vignettes into categories. The numerous deployments of the UVP on different cruises have demonstrated its ability to characterize the vertical and horizontal variability of particles size distributions and mesozooplankton including their diel vertical migrations. Considering the transmission in real time of particle size distribution data, the acquisition of zooplankton data and its simple CTD connectivity, the UVP is an ideal instrument for investigating the twilight and deep-ocean zones, from meso- to global scales.

     
    COSYNA, a German Initiative of an Integrated Coastal Observating System
    Riethmüller, R.; Colijn, F.; Breitbach, G.; Krasemann, H.; Petersen, Wilhelm; Schroeder, F.; Ziemer, F.
    GKSS Research Centre, GERMANY

    The development of an integrated coastal observing system for the German Bight is one of the focal issues of German marine research in the next decade. A major challenge of the Coastal Observation System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) is to tightly combine data from a dense observational network with modeling via data assimilation. The integrated system will focus on daily-to-weekly processes providing objective measures of uncertainty in the state estimates and forecasts. In the longer run it will also cover seasonal and inter-annual time scales and could contribute to identifying changes in the North Sea ecosystem, including climate-induced and anthropogenic cause-and-effect chains and development of future scenarios with increased confidence. In this way, COSYNA represents the German contribution to an anticipated North Sea wide coastal observatory.

    COSYNA will link partially existing systems for the Wadden Sea to the North Sea scale. Physical and biogeochemical key parameters including fluxes will be measured vertically from the sediment-water to the water-atmosphere interface. Transects from intertidal zones to offshore locations will allow the representation of horizontal, cross-coastal gradients, for example with respect to wave fields or water quality, including turbidity.

    The German Helmholtz Research Centre GKSS will coordinate the implementation of COSYNA from 2007 to 2012 as a central part of its national mission in close cooperation with members of the German Marine Research Consortium (KDM). In the first phase (2007-2009), a pre-operational observing subsystem is installed and tested by GKSS alone. It is based on already existing near-coast in-situ components comprising X-Band and HF-Radar, wave-rider buoys and multi-parameter Wadden Sea poles. On the North Sea scale FerryBox-systems operating on ships of opportunity and satellite remote sensing images are included. Three-monthly cruises with profilers and an undulating towed scan fish complement information in the vertical dimension.

    In the main phase (2010-2012), novel technological solutions will be applied by GKSS and the KDM-Partners to extend the in-situ systems deeper into the German Bight and to probe the sediment water and atmosphere water interfaces systematically. High-resolution time-series will be recorded by multi-sensor underwater systems mounted on research platforms and wind turbines in the German Bight. Cruising autonomous underwater vehicles and ships of opportunity will fill up the spatial gaps between these reference stations throughout the water body. In this way a better understanding of the significance of internal and external forcing in the German Bight and more reliable estimations of bio-geochemical budgets of a North-Sea subsystem is aimed for.

    The poster presents the general observing and modeling concepts of COSYNA on the basis of already existing observational and modeling examples, shows the consistency and complementarity of different data sets from observations and modeling and exemplify the integration of data into coupled models resolving meso-scale structures.

     
    On the validation of hydrographic data collected by instrumented elephant seals
    Roquet, F.1; Guinet, C.2; Park, Y.-H.1; Reverdin, G.3; Marchand, S.1; Charrassin, J.-B.1
    1Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, FRANCE;
    2CEBC/CNRS, FRANCE;
    3LOCEAN/CNRS, FRANCE

    To study the foraging ecology of elephant seals in relation to oceanographic conditions, Satellite-Relayed Data Loggers (SRDL) with an integrated Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) have been developped by the Sea Mammal Research Unit (University of St Andrews), which autonomously collect and transmit hydrographic profiles (temperature/salinity) in near-real time via Argos satellites. These devices have the potential to provide detailed oceanographic information in logistically difficult areas at comparatively low cost, being therefore highly interesting for the oceanographic community as well. Large efforts for calibrating and validating the huge amount of collected hydrographic data have been constantly made since the first deployments in 2004, as a necessary step to produce data useful for oceanography. When possible, at-sea experiments were performed on ships of opportunity before deployments on seals, consisting in comparing hydrographic profiles from SRDLs with reference profiles obtained simultaneously with a standard CTD. These experiments brought to light a satisfying repeatability of SRDL sensors but also the presence of systematic biases, especially for salinity, which should be corrected. In 2007 and 2008, more than 6000 valid temperature/salinity (T/S) profiles were collected by 17 SRDLs around the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. We present several delayed-mode methods of estimation and reduction of systematic biases, applied to this peculiar seal dataset. These methods are based on comparisons of T/S profiles from SRDLs with available historical profiles (mainly CTD and ARGO profiles) or with each other (cross-comparisons). Based on this two-fold procedure, we show here the important technical and methodological improvements made since 2004 to produce hydrographic data suitable for oceanographic studies.

     
    The underwater glider Spray: Observations around the world
    Rudnick, Daniel1; Davis, Russ1; Ohman, Mark1; Kessler, William2; Owens, Breck3; Chavez, Francisco4; Send, Uwe1
    1Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UNITED STATES;
    2NOAA/PMEL, UNITED STATES;
    3Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, UNITED STATES;
    4Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, UNITED STATES

    Underwater gliders are autonomous vehicles that profile vertically by changing buoyancy and move horizontally on wings. The Spray glider was developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and has been used at many locations around the world in several international projects. During a typical deployment, Spray dives from the surface to 500-1000 m depth and back, taking 3-6 h to complete the cycle while traveling a horizontal distance of 3-6 km. Spray's speed through the water is thus about 0.25 m/s in the horizontal, and 0.1 m/s in the vertical. Endurance depends on the sensors carried, stratification, dive depth, and speed; deployments are usually planned for 3-4 months. Observed variables include pressure, temperature, salinity, velocity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and acoustic backscatter. To date, Spray gliders have completed over 57,000 dives, covering over 153,000 km. Some notable results are excerpted in this poster. A continuous Spray presence has been established for over three years in the California Current where climate impacts on the productive ecosystem is the focus. Over two years of continuous observations have been made along a 1300 km line northward from Hawaii. Spray observations are ongoing in the Philippine Sea where the North Equatorial Current feeds the Kuroshio. Sprays in the Solomon Sea are monitoring the low latitude western boundary current in the southern hemisphere. Programs in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Gulf Stream have Sprays navigating energetic mesoscale flows. Spray's success to date makes it a good candidate for comprehensive observational systems.

     
    Vertical velocities in the upper ocean from glider and altimetry data
    Ruiz, S.1; Pascual, A2; Garau, B.2; Pujol, I.3; Tintoré, J.1; Tintoré, J.2
    1IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), SPAIN;
    2IMEDEA(CSIC-UIB), SPAIN;
    3CLS, FRANCE

    This study represents a first attempt to combine new glider technology data with altimetry measurements to diagnose vertical velocities in a frontal region. In July 2008, just two weeks after Jason-2 altimeter was launched, a glider mission took place along a satellite track in the Eastern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean). The mission was designed to be almost simultaneous with the satellite passage. Direct estimations of dynamic height from glider profiles reveal a sharp gradient (~15 cm) and correspond very well with the absolute dynamic topography obtained from Jason-1 & Jason-2 tandem mission (r > 0.97, rms differences < 1.6 cm). Our method blends both data sets (glider and altimetry) to provide a consistent and reliable 3D dynamic height field. Using quasi-geostrophic dynamics, we find vertical motion (~1 m/day) which may provide a local mechanism for subduction processes, such as the chlorophyll tongue (down to 180 m) observed by the glider.

     
    A global current meter archive with matlab interface
    Scott, Robert B.
    University of Texas at Austin, UNITED STATES

    We present a Curret Meter Archive (CMA) created by combining the Deep Water Archive of Oregon State University (OSU) Buoy Group, 1901 current meter records collected by Carl Wunsch, and other sources. The current meter records were between Sept. 1973 and Feb. 2005. The OSU dataset contains over 5000 current meter records (including acoustic and mechanical devices, on surface and subsurface moorings) from many investigators and includes the WOCE archive. Most records are in deep water and typically have at least 6-month duration. Each record was visually inspected and quality controlled by the OSU Buoy Group as described on their website http://kepler.oce.orst.edu/. The archive provided by Carl Wunsch contained 1901 records on 525 moorings, of which over 100 moorings were visually inspected (Wunsch, pers. com. 2009). Literature citations to the first published work on the various moorings were tabulated by Wunsch (1997). The records were further quality controlled by visual inspections and comparing with records that also appeared in the OSU dataset. We also obtained over a hundred current meter records from several experiments in the online archive maintained by the Upper Ocean Processes Group at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, http://uop.whoi.edu/index.html. Working with large volumes of data requires a convenient software interface. We've developed a matlab interface that works with a standard set of metadata, making extraction of thousands of records possible in a few lines of matlab.

     
    Development of Compact Electrochemical In-situ pH-pCO2 Sensor for Oceanographic Applications
    Shitashima, Kiminori
    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, JAPAN

    In recent years, in-situ measurement using pH and pCO2 sensors has attracted attention in relation to global warming issues. The high precision electrochemical in-situ pH-pCO2 sensor was developed for measurement of these parameters in seawater. A new pH sensor was used an ion sensitive field effect transistor for the pH electrode and a chlorine ion selective electrode for the reference electrode. For a new pCO2 sensor, the pH sensor was sealed with a gas permeable membrane filled with inner solution. The pH sensor can detect pCO2 change as the inner solution pH changes which is caused by penetration of carbon dioxide through the membrane. Several sea tests using this sensor was carried out in various locations of the ocean. High accuracy, quick response, and long-term stability have been achieved. In the field, response speed of the pH sensor is 1 second or less, and measurement accuracy is ±0.005 pH. In-situ response time of the pCO2 sensor was less than 60 seconds.

    In-situ monitoring of pH and pCO2 changes in the ocean is important because these parameters related to the global warming issues, such as oceanic carbon cycles and ocean acidification. The existing pH sensor based on the glass electrode/reference electrode pair is not satisfying about accuracy, response time and resolution for the chemical oceanography. In order to solve these problems, Shitashima and Kyo (1998) applied an ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) as the pH electrode to oceanographic in-situ pH sensor for the first time. In this study, new ISFET-pH electrode specialized for oceanographic use was developed and a reference electrode was examined for more accurate and stable measurement. Furthermore, the pCO2 sensor was devised by incorporating the pH sensor to measure in-situ pCO2 in seawater.

    A chloride ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE) is a pellet made of several chlorides having a response to the chloride ion, a major element in seawater. The electric potential of the Cl-ISE is stable in the seawater, since it has no inner electrolyte solution. The pH amplifier, data logger and battery are also housed in a pressure vessel. Several sea trials for in-situ response time of the pH-pCO2 sensor were performed at the deep-sea hydrothermal area and open ocean. When the in-situ pH-pCO2 sensor was brought close to the low pH and high CO2 concentration seawater derived from the hydrothermal fluid by using a ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle), pH and pCO2 responded rapidly at two different sites (depth and temperature were different). These results are indicating that this in-situ pH-pCO2 sensor is a very effective tool for high precision long-term monitoring of pH change in the ocean.

     
    The development, current state and future of Cefas SmartBuoys
    Sivyer, D.1; Pearce, D1; Mills, D1; Keable, J1; Hull, T1; Needham, N1; Lees, H1; de Boer, P2; Bot, P2; Greenwood, N1
    1Cefas, UNITED KINGDOM;
    2Rijkswaterstaat, NETHERLANDS

    The SmartBuoy system developed at Cefas is an operational network of 6 databuoys deployed since 1999 in UK coastal waters and since 2006 at one site in Netherlands coastal waters.. The system was designed to improve monitoring of anthropogenic eutrophication. It is comprised of a solid state logger and system controller (ESM2), built at Cefas, interfaced with a wide range of proprietary sensors.. Data is generally logged twice (2 bursts of 10 minutes at 1 Hz) per hour and burst means sent back to Cefas via Orbcomm satellite telemetry and published on the web (www.cefas.co.uk/monitoring). The core parameters measured are salinity, temperature, oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical back scatter and downwelling (PAR) irradiance. An in-situ nitrate analyser (NAS-2E) is deployed at four sites and an automated water sampler (WMS-2) collects up to daily samples for nutrients (nitrate, silicate, phosphate) and phytoplankton species composition from all seven sites. The concentration of SPM can also be determined by gravimetric analysis of WMS-2 collected water samples. SmartBuoy measurements are typically made between 1-2 m depth in relatively shallow tidally mixed waters but are supplemented with sub-surface measurements using the same payload in deeper summer stratified waters. SmartBuoys are serviced approximately monthly and all burst mean data is subsequently loaded onto the operational database (networked and accessible online via Citrix). Initial automated quality assurance takes place during the unpacking of the data to check it is within a specified range. This is followed by a comprehensive manual quality assurance procedure which includes the application of sensor-specific calibrations derived from the results of discrete samples. The database also holds the service and calibration details for every sensor and instrument and is used for creating deployment records and programming the logger. This approach provides an audit trail from individual sensor readings to calibrated results. The SmartBuoy system is proven and fully operational with data returns in excess of 90%. The quality assured data are being used to strengthen the evidence base for assessments of eutrophication required by international treaties (e.g. OSPAR) and EU directives. The SmartBuoy network is now key part of the UK marine monitoring strategy that is part of an integrated system that makes use of ships and satellites. SmartBuoy also provide crucial data for ground-truth data for remote sensing of ocean colour. The high-frequency multi-variable data sets are also important for calibration and validation of hydrodynamic and ecosystem models.

     
    Underway Air-Sea Measurements from the R/V Laurence M. Gould in Drake Passage.
    Sprintall, J.1; Chereskin, T.1; Firing, Y.1; Gille, S.1; Jiang, C.1; Stephenson, G.1; Dong, S.2; Lenn Polton, Y-D.3; Sweeney, C.4; Thompson, A.5
    1Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UNITED STATES;
    2University of Miami, UNITED STATES;
    3University of Wales, Bangor, UNITED KINGDOM;
    4University of Colorado, UNITED STATES;
    5University of Cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM

    In the Southern Ocean, upper-ocean processes and air-sea fluxes play a critical role in transforming water at the ocean surface by changing its density and thus shaping the characteristic properties of many globally important water masses. These processes control the meridional overturning circulation, and lead to the formation of Intermediate and Mode Waters that carry with them evidence of their contact with the atmosphere that may indicate changes in forcing on time scales of relevance to climate.

    Drake Passage has long provided a convenient chokepoint to observe and study these processes in the Southern Ocean. Over the past decade or so, underway in situ measurements within Drake Passage from XBT, XCTD and ADCP instrumentation, along with concurrent shipboard meteorological and pCO2 sampling, have been relatively routinely acquired aboard the U.S. Antarctic Supply and Research Vessel, the R/V Laurence M. Gould (LMG). The LMG is the principal supply ship for the U.S. base of Palmer Station, Antarctica, and crosses Drake Passage on average twice a month, thus providing concurrent air-sea along-track measurements at high temporal and spatial resolution on a near year-round basis.

    Our poster will highlight the results from some recent analyses of the in situ underway shipboard observations from the near-repeat LMG transects in Drake Passage. Our motivation is to demonstrate the significant benefits and synergy of air-sea observations when they are measured at similar time and space scales from the same platform. The multi-year high-resolution measurements have been used to examine seasonal and spatial variability in upper ocean diapycnal eddy diffusivities, eddy heat and momentum fluxes, mixed layer depth and Polar Front location. Long-term trends in Drake Passage upper ocean temperature, CO2 concentration, winds and shifts in the Polar Front are related to large-scale climate modes of variability. The simultaneous, comprehensive suite of air-sea LMG shipboard data have enabled one of the few data-based evaluations of the air-sea heat fluxes in the Southern Ocean, as estimated from satellites, National Weather Prediction models and the reanalysis flux products. At present the existing flux products are not accurate enough to fully explain the observed seasonal to interannual variations in the upper ocean heat budget of the Southern Ocean: the available air-sea flux products differ substantially, often by 50 Wm-2 or more, with the largest imbalances occurring in winter when there are few in situ measurements available. Improving our estimates of air-sea fluxes by validation with shipboard meteorological data should improve our physical understanding of the climate-scale processes that occur in the Southern Ocean.

    To date, the high sea state and winds have deterred deployment of large surface meteorological buoys in Southern Ocean and merchant ship traffic is comparatively infrequent. Automated underway observations on research vessels and supply ships thus provide a cost-effective method for obtaining high-quality data at the air-sea interface that has benefits for a broad range of climate-related research questions. At present, the LMG provides some of the only year-round air-sea measurements in the Southern Ocean. Encouraging the routine collection of underway concurrently measured air-sea data from vessels operating in the Southern Ocean is critical, and future observation systems would benefit from expanding vessel recruitment in this region of importance to global climate.

     
    Implementation of Geospatial Web Services for COMPS in-situ observations
    Subramanian, Vembu; Luther, Mark; Weisberg, Robert; Donovan, Jeff
    University of South Florida, UNITED STATES

    The University of South Florida (USF) College of Marine Science (CMS), St. Petersburg, Florida, US established a near real-time web-based Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMPS) for the West Florida Shelf in 1997. COMPS collects and disseminates near real-time marine observations to researchers, educators, students, local, state and federal emergency management agencies, and the public via Internet. COMPS is a sub-regional coastal ocean observing system in the Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA), the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) Regional Association, and the Florida Coastal Ocean Observing System Consortium (FLCOOS), all regional components of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The COMPS program consists of an array of coastal and offshore buoy stations located along the West Florida Shelf from the Florida Panhandle to the Dry Tortugas. COMPS offshore buoys are mounted with Air-Sea Interaction Meteorological sensors, a bridle mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), and temperature/conductivity sensors attached to the mooring cable. Data from all the sensors are acquired by a data logger built by the USF Center for Ocean Technology and transmitted via GOES satellite once every hour. COMPS coastal stations consist of meteorological sensors, acoustic tide gauges, and conductivity/temperature sensors. The data are acquired by a Campbell Scientific Data Logger and transmitted via GOES satellite as well as by line-of-site radio. Sensors and data telemetry deployed on both types of platforms vary with location, and we also have mounted water quality sensors on some of our coastal and offshore stations. We maintain a state-of-the-art Tempest Local Readout Ground Station (LRGS) satellite receiving system, which allows us to receive and archive raw data transmitted from our stations via the GOES satellite. The raw data received from the platforms via LRGS are then parsed or decoded and quality controlled using a suite of software written in PHP, Perl and C. The data are then stored in a PostgreSQL relational database and made available on our web site. Once an hour, the parsed data from all our COMPS platforms are disseminated to the SECOORA and GCOOS Regional Associations and are aggregated with other sub regional coastal ocean observing systems located within the southeast US and Gulf of Mexico. The aggregated data are displayed and disseminated via SECOORA and GCOOS RA web sites. We also push our data once an hour in XML format to the NOAAs National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), where they are further quality controlled and distributed worldwide via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS). NDBC also makes our data available on their web site. NDBC has implemented the IOOS Data Integration Framework version of Sensor Observation Service and COMPS data will be available on their web site via established web services. Realizing the importance to increase data accessibility, enhance data integration, and enable interoperability between sub-regional, regional and federal and international coastal ocean observing systems, we have made significant improvements within COMPS data management. With active participation in the IOOS Data Management and Communications (DMAC) related initiatives and projects within the regional associations as well in state and national level within US, we have implemented community developed open source DMAC technologies to advance the COMPS system towards interoperability. As one of the largest sub-regional coastal ocean observing systems maintained by an academic institution in the southeast US and Gulf of Mexico coastal ocean regions, we have participated in the NOAA-Coastal Services Center Data Transport Laboratory projects in deploying and evaluating data transport technologies and in the OpenIOOS interoperability experiment. Implemented web services technologies include: OpeNDAP, an Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol, Geographic Markup Language (GML), Web Feature Service (WFS), and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Observation Service. In addition to the above web services offerings, we have implemented a Google Maps Interface on our web site and provide our observations packaged using Keyhole Markup Language (KML). KML, an OGC standard, is a very popular data sharing method and is used widely among the public and earth science communities. Users can also download archived data for a station of interest according to a chosen set of criteria from the PostgreSQL server. In conclusion, COMPS will continue to engage in US IOOS DMAC related initiatives via the Regional Associations and implement DMAC technologies that will facilitate seamless delivery of data and data products to end users within US and around the world.

     
    The Ocean Observatories Initiative
    Weller, Robert A.1; Delaney, John2; Orcutt, John3; Cowles, Tim4
    1Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, UNITED STATES;
    2University of Washington, UNITED STATES;
    3Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UNITED STATES;
    4Consortium for Ocean Leadership, UNITED STATES

    The U.S. National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative will provide and maintain new ocean observing infrastructure that will be maintained for 25-30 years. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership is the prime contractor. Two Marine Implementing Organizations (IOs) will design, build, install, and maintain observing infrastructure. The Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) IO, based at the University of Washington, will provide cabled seafloor and water column observing capabilities on the Juan de Fuca plate off the Pacific Northwest coast of the U.S. The Coastal and Global Scale Nodes (IO), led by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and including Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Oregon State University. CGSN will provide observing capabilities at two coastal arrays and at four high latitude global sites. Across the marine IO infrastructure there are goals of providing increased levels of real time connectivity, power to host diverse instruments, and deployment and maintenance of a core set of sensors that are multidisciplinary. The Cyberinfrastructure or CI IO will provide the marine network command and control and near-real-time data delivery to users ashore via high-speed 10Gbps networks.

    The RSN will consist of seven Primary Nodes offshore in the North East Pacific, and complements a similar system being constructed by the Canadians using cable support. Each RSN Primary Node is provisioned with an initial 10gb/s of bandwidth and capable of delivering up to 8 Kilowatts of power. At present the configuration approved by NSF involves two Primary Nodes close to the Juan de Fuca Spreading Center near Axial Sea Mount, two Primary Nodes, one at the base of the continental slope, and one midway up the slope on the so-called Hydrate Ridge, an actively venting methane hydrate system. There are two nodes associated with the coastal research being conducted offshore from Newport, Oregon. And finally, there is a Primary Node near the middle of the Juan de Fuca Plate, to the west of Newport. A potential early addition to the approved design would involve implementing a complementary offshore HF Radar at or near the RSN Primary Node site close to the mid-Plate Node.

    The CGSN coastal sites will include the Endurance Array with a line of moorings off Newport, Oregon, a line of moorings off Grays Harbor Washington, and gliders; and the Pioneer Array spanning the shelf break in the mid-Atlantic Bight, with moorings, gliders, and AUVs. The subsurface moorings of the Endurance Array's Newport line will be connected to the RSN cable. CGSN will also provide observing capabilities at four global sites: the Irminger Sea (60°N, 39°W), the Gulf of Alaska (46°N, 127°W), the Argentine Basin (42°S, 42°W), and off the southwestern coast of Chile in the Southern Ocean (55°S, 90°W). Each global site will comprises a triangular moored array, with a surface mooring and hybrid profiler mooring at one corner and taut subsurface moorings at the other two corners, and three gliders.

    The OOI data will be provided to users by the CI IO and are fully open. The data will be used for analysis, event detection and assimilation into models to interpolate the sparse marine data and add data from divers observatories to predict future states of Earth. The derived knowledge will be used to plan and schedule command and control of the network including the fleet of gliders. The CI IO is located at UCSD while components of the CI are developed and maintained at Woods Hole, Rutgers, University of Chicago, North Carolina State University, NASA/JPL, MIT, USC, National Center for Supercomputer Applications, MBARI, and the University of North Carolina.

     
    An Autonomous Mobile Platform for Underway Surface Carbon Measurements in Open-Ocean and Coastal Waters
    Willcox, Scott1; Hine, Roger2; Burcham, Andrew2; Sabine, Chistopher L.3; Meinig, Christian3; Richardson, Tim2; Manley, Justin1
    1Liquid Robotics, Inc., UNITED STATES;
    2Liquid Robotics, Inc, UNITED STATES;
    3NOAA PMEL, UNITED STATES

    Understanding the role of anthropogenic carbon as a forcing factor in global climate change is an important scientific goal that has far reaching implications for government policy formulation with associated impacts upon social and economic activities and infrastructures. The presence of excess green-house gases in the atmosphere is fundamentally tied to the uptake of carbon by the worlds oceans. The ocean stores carbon primarily in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon, which is increasing with time due to the absorption of CO2 gas from the atmosphere. Greater understanding of the global oceans ultimate capacity as a sink of anthropogenic carbon is much needed. The NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory and Liquid Robotics, Inc., are collaborating to address the need for long-term observation of carbon parameters over broad swathes of the global coastal and open ocean by integrating a suite of state-of-the-art pCO2, pH, CTD, CDOM, chlorophyll, and turbidity sensors onto a Wave Glider wave-powered autonomous marine vehicle (AMV). The resulting Bio-geochemical/Bio-Optical Wave Glider platform will be capable both of acting as a long-duration (up to 1 year) virtual mooring to augment the existing sparse collection of moored carbon science sensors and of conducting autonomous, basin-scale ocean transits to provide new insight into the spatial variability or carbon uptake (or release) and associated parameters. The Bio-geochemical/Bio-Optical Wave Gliders primary payload sensor is the MAPCO2 sensor being adapted by PMEL. The MAPCO2 sensor is designed for extended autonomous operation (up to 400 days) and has previously been deployed on several NOAA Ocean Climate Observatory buoys. Figure1 shows a preliminary design for the integration of MAPCO2, pH, and optical water properties sensors into the float portion of a Wave Glider platform. The autonomy, mobility, and endurance capabilities of the platform, married with its relative low-cost in comparison to ship-based sampling programs, has generated significant interest in the platform from within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the greater academic community. This poster will discuss the development of the Biogeochemical/Bio-Optical Wave Glider platform and payload suite and the planned use of the platform for ocean carbon science observation. The integrated package will be tested in both open ocean environments in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and in coastal regions along the west coast of the US. The Biogeochemical/Bio-Optical Wave Glider data will be validated against buoy- and ship-borne sensors.

     
    Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility
    Williams, S.B.; Pizarro, O.; Jakuba, M.; Mahon, I.; Johnson-Roberson, M.
    Australian Centre for Field Robotics, University of Sydney, AUSTRALIA

    This paper will describe the current status of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Facility. IMOS is an initiative designed to provide critical infrastructure to support marine science in Australia. The University of Sydneys Australian Centre for Field Robotics operates an ocean going Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) called Sirius capable of undertaking high resolution, seabed survey work. This platform is a modified version of a mid-size robotic vehicle called Seabed built at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The submersible is equipped with a full suite of oceanographic instruments, including a high-resolution stereo camera pair and strobes, a multibeam sonar, depth and conductivity/temperature sensors, Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) including a compass with integrated roll and pitch sensors, Ultra Short Baseline Acoustic Positioning System (USBL) and forward looking obstacle avoidance sonar. As part of the establishment of the AUV Facility, IMOS is supporting deployment of the AUV, which is made available to scientists on a competitive basis in order to assist marine projects in Australia.

    The AUV has been operated on cruises around the country, providing high-resolution seabed surveys of selected sites in support of marine studies. Trials have included deployments with scientists from the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) assessing benthic habitats off the Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia; a research cruise aboard the R/V Southern Surveyor documenting drowned shelf edge reefs at multiple sites along the Great Barrier Reef; surveying of proposed Marine Parks and cuttlefish spawning grounds in South Australia; documenting rocky reef sites along the Tasman Peninsula and in the Huon MPA in Tasmania; and describing biological assemblages associated with deep coral reef systems at Scott Reef in WA. Highlights from these deployments are presented, illustrating the role of the AUV in the context of cruise objectives and demonstrating how the high-resolution, stereoscopic seafloor models are being used to better understand benthic habitats at depth.

     
    Using Ocean Gliders to Measure Turbulent Mixing
    Wolk, Fabian1; St. Laurent, Lou2; Lueck, Rolf G.1
    1Rockland Scientific Inc., CANADA;
    2Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, UNITED STATES

    Turbulence measurements are typically carried out from tethered free-fall profilers because they provide a nearly vibration-free platform to measure the turbulent velocity shear. While these profilers provide relatively fast repetition of the measurement and real-time data display, their operation is labor intensive and requires dedicated ship operations and skilled personnel. This mode of sampling, therefore, is not well suited to the severe spatial and temporal inhomogeneities of ocean mixing.

    Here we present the results from a recent deployment of turbulence shear probes on an autonomous Slocum ocean glider. This is the first reported deployment of these sensors on a glider and the data show that the shear probes were able to resolve dissipation rates, ε, as low as 5 x 10-11 W kg-1. This detection level is comparable to tethered free-fall profilers, making it possible to study turbulent mixing over large geographic areas without a proportional increase in cost and labor.

    Tests flights were performed in a small lake near Cape Cod, Massachusetts. On the day of the test winds were light and the water column showed an active mixing layer with a thermocline at 7 m depth. Below the thermocline conditions were quiescent with very low turbulence levels, providing an ideal test environment. The data from the turbulence package indicate that vehicle vibrations are small. The accelerometer spectra show vibration peaks at 25, 60, 80 Hz, caused by vibrations of the gliders tail fin assembly. These vibrations are excited by the action of the gliders buoyancy pump and rudder. The vibration peaks have a small magnitude and narrow bandwidth and only the 80 Hz peak enters the shear probe spectrum in some instances. The shear probes resolved dissipation rates between in the quiescent layer below the thermocline and in the mixing layer. All measured shear spectra fit well with the Nasmyth Empirical Spectrum.

     

    Sustained Ocean Observations for 30 Years Using Argos
    Woodward, B1; Ortega, C2; Guigue, M.2
    1CLS America, Inc., UNITED STATES;
    2CLS, FRANCE

    Since the late 1970s oceanographers, meteorologists and climatologists have used the satellite-based Argos system to report in-situ observations collected by a wide-range of buoys, fixed stations and profiling floats. These data have made significant contributions to our ability to describe, understand and predict global climate and weather on all space and time scales. These global in-situ data collection platforms represent essential core elements of the international Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). These platforms, reporting their data via Argos, have formed the backbone of international weather and climate programs for almost 30 years and through GCOS and GOOS in particular, will play a substantial role in the implementation of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This poster will illustrate the significant role Argos has played in the evolution of ocean observing systems during the last few decades, as well as how the new generations of Argos systems are positioned well to serve the satellite-based data collection needs of GEOSS interdisciplinary science.

     
    EuroSITES European network of deep ocean observatories
    Larkin, Kate; Lampitt, R.S.; Hartman, S.E.; Pagnani, M.R.; Billett, D.S.M.; Berndt, C.; Huehnerbach, V.; Řsterhus, S.; Nittis, K.; Lykousis, V.; Petihakis, G.; Cardin, V.; Brunetti, F.; Bozzano, R.; Pensieri, S.; Wallace, D.; Karstensen, J.; Cotrim da Cunha, L.; Priede, I.G.; Holford, A.; Coppola, L.; Tamburini, C.; Lefčvre, D.; Pouliquen, S.; Carval, T.; Ghiron, S.; Llinás-González , O.; Cianca, A.; Melicio, O.; Santos, C.; Silva, P.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, M.
    National Oceanography Centre, UNITED KINGDOM

    This paper will review EuroSITES, a European FP7 Collaborative Project which will integrate Europes existing deep ocean observatories and contribute both to the subsea component of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). EuroSITES focuses on enhancing and harmonising the current in situ infrastructure of 9 European deep ocean sites through best practice and common data management. EuroSITES will bring about a major advance in the way the European community monitors the ocean interior, seafloor and sub-seafloor. The EuroSITES community supports Research and Development of innovative ocean observation technology. Specific science missions to be carried out within EuroSITES including the measurement of deep ocean oxygen consumption, mesozooplankton and pH will be briefly described. These all aim to progress European ocean observation technology beyond the current state-of-the-art. The importance of the EuroSITES Oversight Committee will be highlighted as a key advisory panel and driver throughout the duration of the project, involving leading international scientists and key end users of ocean observational data such as the modelling community, data managers and outreach specialists.

    Integrating and enhancing observatories both regionally and vertically into a coherent and mutually supportive network, EuroSITES will form an essential contribution towards the visions of EuroGOOS and GOOS of a sustainable and operational network of ocean observations. EuroSITES will complement and link with other existing European and International initiatives to contribute to the subsea component of GMES and to the future vision of GEOSS as a fully integrated operational global observing system.